FOPESCO PARTY

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This is a new youth political party that has been formed by MATTHEWS MWANZA in Zambia. The brief explanation of this party is as follows:

  1. FOPESCO PARTY is an acronym which stands for: Formulate Peace, and Stability in the Country PARTY
  2. FOUNDER                                    : MATTHEWS MWANZA
  3. NICK NAME                                   : Presidenteh/M Square/ Debs
  4. YEAR FORMED                            : 2014/10/09
  5. RESIDENTIAL ADDRESS              : 08 Luapula Kamenza T/Ship ,CHILILABOMBWE
  6. PROVINCE                                    : Copperbelt
  7. COUNTRY                                     : Zambia
  8. PARTY PRESIDENT                      : MATTHEWS MWANZA

PERSONAL DESCRIPTION

  1. First name:    MATTHEWS
  2. sir name :     MWANZA
  3. Middle name :  PATRICK
  4. Gender : male
  5. DOB:    05/06.1992
  6. status :    single11390044_1446121745706134_4865854119506367829_n

EDUCATION

  1. Graduated from UNIVERSITY OF ZAMBIA in conjunction with KITWE COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, and acquired primary teachers’ DIPLOMA.

ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT CALCULATIONS

Electrical Circuit Calculations

Series Circuits

Many circuits have more than one conversion device in them

(i.e. toaster. heater. lamps etc.) and some have more than one source of electrical energy.

If the circuit components are connected end to end to form a single loop it is a series-circuit

Remember that current is the rate at which electrons move through the circuit. So as in several hoses connected in series to form one long line, water can only come out at the far end at the same rate that it enters at (neglecting friction).

Each component has a volt drop across it (and is the force required to convert the electrical energy to some other form). All of the volt drops in a circuit add up to the e.m.f. (Voltage) of the supply.

In the above circuit E = V1 + V2

(This assumes that the connecting wires have very little resistance, which is not an unreasonable assumption to make.)

Ammeters

Ammeters are instruments that measure current and so have to be in the current path, that is, in series with the device whose current is being measured.

The volt drop across each component can be calculated using Ohms law if the circuit current and the value of each component’s resistance is known.

(Remember that the e.m.f of the supply is across the whole circuit and not just across anyone of the components.)

Worked Example:

  • If the circuit shown draws 10 amps from the supply, calculate the volt drop across each resistor and the volume of the supply e.m.f.

Note that as it is a series circuit

the current is the same in all resistors.

V1 = IR1 = 10 x 10 = 100V

V2 = IR2 = 10 x 20 = 200V

V3 = IR3 = 10 x 5 = 50V

As the volt drops all add up to the supply voltage E

E             = V1 +V2 +V3

  • 100+200+50
  • 350v

If the supply voltage but not the current volume had been given in the above circuit we could have calculated it because the total resistance of a series

circuit Rtotal is simply the sum of the resistances

This is the total resistance across the supply so this circuit can

be replaced by a single resistor of 35 ohms.

The supply current                                           I   = E/Rt

  • 350/35

 

  • 10 amps

Look at the circuit below. Even though we have connected two resistors you should be able to state immediately what the volt drop across the two resistors together is.

The voltage drop is, of course, 24 volts.

If the supply e.m.f E and the separate resistances are given, calculate the circuit current and the volt drops across each resistor.

1 Add the resistances to give the total resistance

2 Calculate the circuit current by dividing the supply E by RT

3 Calculate the volt drop across each resistor by using the formula:

V1 =I x R1

V2 =I x R2

V3 =I x R3 etc.

A Worked Example

  • Given the circuit below calculate I The total resistance

2 The current.

3 The volt drop across each resistor-

1. Total resistance: R total = R1 + R2 + R3
= 40 + 5 + 80
= 125 ohms
2. Current (I) is found by using Ohms Law: I = E/RT
= 250/125
Therefore, circuit current I = 2amps
(3) Volt drop across each resistor:
Volt drop across R1: V1 = I x R1
= 2 x 40
= 80 volts
Volt drop across R2: V2 = I x R2
= 2 x 5
= 10 volts
Volt drop across R3: V3 = I x R3
= 2 x 80
= 160 volts

As a check, the volt drops across the resistors should add up to the supply voltage. i.e = VD1 + VD2 +VD3

  • 80+10 + 160

 

=  250 volts.

Parallel Circuit

When each of a number of circuit components is connected across the same supply or between the same two points in a circuit, they are said to be connected in parallel.

Whenever resistors are in parallel there is the same volt drop across each one. In figure one the volt drop across R1, R2 and R3 will be the same and will be the supply voltage. In figure two the volt drop across E2, R3 and R4 will be the same and it will be V2

Unlike the series connection the current in resistors in parallel is not the same (unless they are the same value of resistance).
Voltmeters

Voltmeters are instruments used to measure voltages either e.m.f.s or voltage drops. Since a voltage drop occurs across a resistor (or the terminals of a battery or generator) a voltmeter is always connected in parallel with the load

Another Worked Example

Study this circuit:

Calculate the volume of the current in R1.

I2 = V2 = 100 = 10A
R2 10
I3 = V2 = 100 = 20A
R3 5
I4 = V2 = 100 = 20A
R4 5
I5 = V2 = 100 = 4A
R5 25
IT = I2 + I3 + I4 + I5
= 10 + 20 + 20 + 4
= 54A

Equivalent Resistance

There is still one more thing we can find out about a parallel circuit, its equivalent combined resistance

Equivalent resistance is the single resistance which could replace the ones in parallel and cause the same combined current to be drawn from the supply.

Experimentally it can be shown that two resistors of 6 ohms and

12 ohms in parallel could be replaced by a single resistor of four ohms to take the current.

Calculation of Equivalent Resistance

If we connect an ohmmeter across the circuit, as shown below, it will measure the equivalent combined resistance of the 6 ohm and 12 ohm resistors in parallel.

As you can see it reads four ohms

So, with parallel circuits you do not add the resistances.

To confirm the meter reading we can work out the equivalent resistance using Ohms Law.

We have already found the total current that would flow in the equivalent resistance and we know the voltage across it.

Using Ohms Law Formula:

RT       =          E

I

  • 24

6

  • 4 ohms

We conclude, then, that a 6 ohm and 12 ohm resistance in parallel will act as if they were a single resistance of 4 ohms.

It is important to note that the value of the equivalent resistance. (4 ohms) is lower than the smallest parallel resistance (6 ohms).

In a parallel circuit the total resistance is always less than the smallest resistance.

Method Two

Another way of calculating the parallel resistance of a number of resistors in parallel is from the formula

1 = 1 + 1 + 1
Equivalent Resistance R1 R2 R3

Two resistors, R1 of two ohms and R2 of 3 ohms are connected in parallel across a 100 volt supply-what current would this combination draw from the supply?

A Worked Example

  • Study the circuit diagram below and compare it with the circuit on page 17

You can see that adding another 12 ohm resistor in parallel has caused the total current to increase to 8A.

Work out what the equivalent resistance is now.

1 = 1 + 1 + 1
RT R1 R2 R3
1 = 1 + 1 + 1
RT 6 12 12
1 = 4
RT 12
RT 3Ω

Or, to calculate using Ohms Law:

  • E

RT                 IT

= 24
8
  • 3Ω

The equivalent resistance was 4 ohms before the twelve ohms resistor was added in paral1el.

So, adding the resistor has lowered the equivalent resistance

For example, add another turnstile at a football ground and the crowd will move more quickly into the grounds, or to put it another way, the total stream of people experiences less resistance to movement by the addition of an extra turnstile

The table below gives the order in which you must work when dealing with simple parlal1el circuits where supply voltage and individual resistance values are given.

1 Determine the voltage drop across each parallel resistance.

The voltage drop across each resistance is the same.

2 Calculate the current in each parallel resistance,

Use Ohms Law formula:

I = V

R

The two known values being the voltage drop across the resistor and the resistor’s resistance.

3 Determine the total current flowing in the circuit.

The total current is equal to the sum of the currents in the parallel resistors.

4 Calculate the Equivalent Resistance

Use Ohms Law formula:

I = V

R

The two known values being the voltage drop across the resistor, and 1Tthe total current.

To Add Fractions

In order to add or subtract fractions, (which often has to be done in order to solve parallel circuit problems) the following guidelines will be useful:

Series Parallel Circuits

A circuit can be made up of resistances connected in series with one or more parallel combinations

In the above circuit current will flow through the series resistor and then divide at A and flow through both branches of the parallel combination. Because current has passed through the series resistor, a voltage drop will occur across it. Therefore the voltage across the parallel resistors will not be the same as the voltage applied to the circuit. It will be the e.m.f. voltage minus the voltage drop across the series resistor.

To calculate the total resistance in the circuit first reduce the parallel portion of the circuit to an equivalent resistance value, and then deal with the total circuit as a series circuit.

This equivalent resistance value is the value of resistance that will replace the paralleled resistors.

  • Two resistors, R1 and R2 of two ohms and four ohms are connected in parallel and then connected in series with a resistor R3 of 4 ohms

1 Calculate the total circuit resistance.

Equivalent Resistance of the Parallel Branch = RP

1 = 1 + 1
RP R1 R2
1 = 1 + 1
RP 2 4
  • 3

4

RP   = 4
3
  • 3Ω

Total Resistance of Circuit = RT

RT = R3 + RP

  • 3 + 4
  • 3 Ω

2 If this circuit was now connected to a 100 volt supply what current would it take.

IT = E

RT

  • 100

5.3

  • 9A

2 What would then be the volt drop across each resistor.

V1     =   IT x Equivalent R of R1 and R2

  • 9 x 1.3
  • 6V

V2     =   IT x R3

  • 9 x 4
  • 5V

V2     =   E – V1

  • 100 – 24.6
  • 4V

(The slight difference in the answers is due to accuracies in the decimal places but is not significant.)

Summary

This module has considered series circuits in which the resistors are connected end to end and the features of a series circuit are:

  1. The current is the same value throughout the circuit.
  2. ‘The total resistance of a series circuit is the sum of the resistances.
  3. The voltage drop across each resistor can be calculated using Ohms law i.e. Volt Drop = circuit current x resistance
  4. The volt drops across each resistor when added together equals the supply voltage (E). ‘The parallel circuit was then considered in which two or more resistors are connected across the supply or between the same two points in a circuit.
  1. The volt drop across all resistors in parallel is the same.
  2. The total resistance of a parallel circuit RT can be calculated from the formula:
1 = 1 + 1 + 1
RP R1 R2 R3
  1. The current in each resistor can be calculated from the volt drop across the resistor divided by its resistance (note the volt drop across the resistors will be the same for all the resistors in the parallel branch). If the parallel branch is the only thing in the circuit the volt drop across it will be the same as the supply voltage E.
  2. The total circuit current enters the branch and then splits up to pass through the parallel resistors in proportion to their values. So the total circuit current is the sum of all the currents in the parallel bank.
  3. In the series/parallel circuit the things to be remembered are:
  4. The third type of circuit was the series parallel one in which some resistors are connected in series with parallel banks of resistors.
  1. The total resistance of the circuit is the sum of the resistors in series plus the equivalent resistances of all the parallel banks.
  2. The total current in the circuit can be calculated by dividing the supply voltage E by the total resistance of the circuit or by calculating all the currents in any parallel bank and adding them together, or dividing the volt drop across any series resistor by its resistance.
  3. The total voltage of the supply E can be calculated by adding all the volt drops in the circuit (remembering that each series resistor has a volt drop but only each parallel bank has one volt drop across it).

THINGS THAT CAUSE PROBLEMS TO UNBORN CHILD

THINGS THAT CAUSE PROBLEMS TO UNBORN CHILD

Teratogens are substances or other factors that can cause congenital abnormalities, which are also called birth defects. Usually these abnormalities arise in the third to eighth weeks of pregnancy, when the major organ systems are forming. Examples of teratogens include certain chemicals, medications, and infections or other diseases in the mother.

Chemicals and medications

It is difficult to determine whether a particular chemical or medication causes congenital abnormalities. This is because many women take medications during pregnancy, and most studies have to rely on the mother’s memory of what she took while she was pregnant. One notable exception is thalidomide, a medication used to treat morning sickness, which was found in the 1960s to cause total or partial absence of the arms or legs in babies.

Some other medications are known to cause congenital abnormalities:

  • Aminopterin is a drug that is used to treat cancerous tumours. Aminopterin blocks folic acid, and folic acid is important for production of DNA and cell growth. Therefore, folic acid helps prevent many birth defects, most notably neural tube defects. Neural tube defects are problems with the development of the brain or spinal cord. The use of aminopterin during pregnancy can lead to brain abnormalities such as anencephaly, where all or part of the brain is missing, or hydrocephalus, which is a build-up of fluid in the brain. This drug can also cause facial abnormalities such as cleft lip and cleft palate.
  • Some anti-epileptic drugs are associated with a wide array of birth defects, such as cardiovascular abnormalities, cleft palate, and microcephaly, which is a condition where the brain is too small. These drugs include phenytoin, valproic acid, and trimethadione. Women with epilepsy need special monitoring and care during pregnancy, which may include a change in medication.
  • Warfarin, a blood-thinning drug, is a teratogen. Warfarin can cause central nervous system defects, including mental retardation, as well as problems with the optic nerves.
  • Drugs called angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, which are used to treat high blood pressure, can cause a number of problems during pregnancy. ACE inhibitors can cause fetal growth restriction, problems with the baby’s kidneys, and sometimes death of the baby during pregnancy.
  • Isotretinoin, which is used to treat severe acne, is also linked with a number of congenital abnormalities. These include cleft palate, heart defects, abnormalities of the outer ears, and underdevelopment of the lower jaw. Isotretinoin is also linked with neural tube defects.
  • Some types of tranquilizers, such as phenothiazine and lithium, are thought to be teratogens. Similarly, drugs used to treat anxiety, such as diazepam, are linked with congenital abnormalities such as cleft lip or palate.
  • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which are used to treat depression, are capable of crossing the placenta and affecting the baby. Most of the effects in the baby are subtle, and include irritability, agitation, tremor, increased respiratory rate, nasal congestion, or diarrhea. However, the SSRI paroxetine is thought to cause birth defects in early pregnancy. It is important to note that depression itself may be more harmful than the drugs used to treat depression. The benefits of SSRIs in the treatment of depression need to be weighed against the risks to the unborn baby.
  • Hormones called androgens and progestins have been shown to make female fetuses more masculine. The baby’s clitoris may be larger than normal, and the outer lips surrounding her genitals may be fused.
  • Another hormone called diethylstilbestrol (DES), which is a form of estrogen, can cause abnormalities of the uterus, vagina, and cervix in girls.

Alcohol, smoking, and other drugs

Alcohol use is a well-known cause of congenital abnormalities during pregnancy. Even moderate amounts of alcohol in pregnancy can cause developmental problems in the unborn baby. Abnormalities caused by alcohol in pregnancy include deformities of the face, arms, and legs, heart conditions, mental retardation, and fetal growth restriction. However, these conditions are not very common. More frequently, children born to women who drink heavily during pregnancy may have problems with thinking and remembering and behavioural issues. The abnormalities and other problems caused by alcohol use in pregnancy are referred to as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder.

Cigarette smoking is linked with fetal growth restriction and premature birth. Smoking may also cause problems with the development of the brain, cardiovascular system, and respiratory system. This is true whether the mother smokes herself or is exposed to second-hand smoke. Babies exposed to cigarette smoke during pregnancy may also be born with an increased startle reflex, tremor, or other problems. The effects of cigarette smoke on the unborn baby increase with how much the mother smokes, as well as the length of time that she has been smoking.

Exposure to marijuana during pregnancy may result in low birth weight, intracranial bleeding, jitteriness, low blood sugar, low levels of calcium in the blood, or an infection of the blood called sepsis. The use of marijuana in pregnancy can cause other problems in the baby such as poor feeding, irritability, and rapid breathing.

Amphetamines, also called “speed,” stimulate the central nervous system. Prenatal use of these drugs is associated with premature birth, low birth weight, or intracranial bleeding.

The use of opioid drugs, such as heroin or methadone, during pregnancy can lead to fetal growth restriction, premature birth, and low birth weight.

Cocaine use is known to cause numerous problems during pregnancy. These include miscarriage, fetal growth restriction, and problems with the development of the urinary system or genital tract. The use of cocaine can lead to microcephaly, where the brain is too small. Children of mothers who used cocaine during pregnancy are also more prone to developing neurobehavioural problems. Cocaine use during pregnancy has been associated with a higher risk of a serious problem with the placenta, called placental abruption. Prenatal use of cocaine may also cause increased startling, jitteriness, and excessive sucking in the newborn baby.

The use of these types of drugs during pregnancy can also lead to a condition called neonatal abstinence syndrome, where the baby experiences withdrawal. When a woman is pregnant and takes one of these drugs, her baby can become addicted. Once born, the baby is still dependent on the drug; since the drug is no longer available, the baby experiences withdrawal.

Other chemicals

Some environmental chemicals are known to lead to congenital abnormalities. Mercury, which is found in some types of fish, has been linked with the development of neurological problems resembling cerebral palsy, as well as mental retardation. Lead has been associated with fetal growth restriction and neurological disorders. Polychlorinated biphenyls, also known as PCBs, are shown to cause fetal growth restriction and skin discolouration.

X-rays can cause problems with fetal development, such as spina bifida, cleft palate, blindness, abnormalities of the arms and legs, or microcephaly, which is a condition where the brain is too small. The type of abnormality that develops depends on the dose of X-ray radiation the pregnant woman receives, and how far along the pregnancy is. There is no established safe dose of X-ray radiation. However, dental X-rays (and dental cleanings) are considered safe during pregnancy. Talk to your caregiver if you are asked to have an X-ray and you are pregnant or you think you could be pregnant.

Radiation and chemotherapy, which are used to treat cancer, are also associated with congenital abnormalities. If at all possible, the use of radiation and chemotherapy should be delayed until after the baby has been delivered. Sometimes this is not possible, however, and the risks of these treatments must be weighed against their benefits to the mother.

Infections in the mother

“CHEAP TORCHES” is an acronym for a special group of infections that can affect the developing baby during pregnancy. CHEAP TORCHES stands for the following:

C: Chickenpox and shingles H: Hepatitis B, C, D, E E: Enteroviruses, a group of viruses including poliovirus A: AIDS P: Parvovirus B19, also known as fifth disease

T: Toxoplasmosis O: Other infections such as group B streptococcus, listeria, candida R: Rubella C: Cytomegalovirus H: Herpes simplex virus​ E: Everything else sexually transmitted such as gonorrhea and chlamydia S: Syphilis

Hepatitis B, herpes simplex virus, and syphilis are sexually transmitted diseases. The chickenpox virus is a risk to women who have not already had chickenpox, or who have not been properly vaccinated against that disease.

CHEAP TORCHES infections are a common cause of birth defects such as mental retardation, learning problems, jaundice, anemia, low birth weight, vision problems, deafness, heart defects, and skin rash. CHEAP TORCHES infections may also cause stillbirth. Babies are most severely affected by CHEAP TORCHES infections during the first trimester of pregnancy, when the major organs and structures are developing.

Maternal conditions

A number of chronic illnesses in the mother are linked with an increased risk of congenital abnormalities, fetal growth restriction, or certain diseases in the unborn baby. In some maternal conditions, the risk lies with the drugs used for treatment, rather than the illness itself. It is important to get these conditions under control before becoming pregnant. In some cases, a change in treatment may be needed before pregnancy begins.

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Your Lifestyle Choices Affect Your Unborn Child’s Health

googletag.cmd.push(function(){googletag.display(“dfp-ad-textlink”);}); by Julie Snyder

We’ve all heard that our choices during pregnancy can affect our growing babies.

Did you know that your lifestyle before, during and after pregnancy impacts your baby’s health way beyond birth?

Poor nutrition and exposure to harmful substances increase your risk of pregnancy problems. These same prenatal factors increase your newborn’s risk of future diseases, learning disabilities and behavior disorders.

Some days it might feel like you have a lump or basketball in your tummy or that you’re hatching the Loch Ness monster. Head on over to the baby development pages to see stunning images of babies the same age as your little one. Those babes might be sucking a thumb already, or showing off a perfectly-formed foot with five tiny toes.

Your Lifestyle Choices Affect Your Baby’s Health

Your little girl might have waved at you during an ultrasound. Your little guy may have wriggled excitedly when he heard your voice. In another few months, you’ll meet face-to-face. Right now you have an opportunity to give your precious child the best possible start in life. Your changes today can make your baby’s tomorrow a lot more pleasant.

Smoking

You may want to quit smoking before you try conceiving. Smoking contributes to several fertility problems as well as being the cause of some pregnancy-related and newborn complications. Babies born to moms who smoke are more apt to:

  • Be born with a low birth weight. • Have more breathing and heart problems. • Have colic. • Be a SIDS victim. • Possibly die within the first year of life.

Studies have found that adults whose moms smoked are more likely to be obese and have triple the chance of developing diabetes.

Alcohol

Some experts say even one drink might damage your baby’s health; others say that light drinking during pregnancy is “okay.” All agree that chronic alcohol abuse can lead to a fetal alcohol syndrome disorder.

  • A mother’s drinking habits might increase their child’s risk of developing an alcohol addiction as a young adult. • Babies whose moms binged during pregnancy or drank heavily are more apt to have a developmental problem.

Drugs

When you confirmed your positive pregnancy test, you probably started worrying about everything that went into your body — food, medicine and otherwise. That’s probably a very healthy attitude. Talk with your doctor about your prescriptions and the over-the-counter meds you take.

  • Babies whose moms took Paxil® had twice the rate of heart defects. • Babies whose moms took nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the first trimester had almost twice the rate of certain heart defects. Common NSAIDs are naproxen, ibuprofen and aspirin. • Street drugs can cause known developmental problems.

Junk Food or Nutritional Foods

Your smart food choices during pregnancy affect the physical and mental development of your child for years to come.

  • Eating lots of foods high in unhealthy fats and sugars can make your baby more likely to have diabetes. • If you eat a diet of junk food, your child will be born with a taste for it. • Not gaining enough weight can program your baby’s body to store food in a way that leads to obesity later in life. • Gaining too much can permanently alter your baby’s appetite regulation system and set the stage for obesity in childhood and beyond.

Common Toxic Chemicals

Harmful substances can get into your body through your skin or when you breathe, eat or drink. Environmental experts advise that you avoid common household solvents, such as turpentine, hazardous cleaning supplies and indoor and outdoor pesticides.

Your home environment affects your baby before birth and beyond.

  • Scientific evidence says the rise of chronic diseases, cancer, autism, asthma, birth defects, and learning disabilities could be coming from the chemicals found around your home. • Prenatal exposure to household chemical can increase a baby’s risk for developing eczema and asthma.

Protect you and your baby by choosing more natural cleaning supplies. Ventilate the house regularly by opening the windows for a few minutes each day.

Lead

An older home might have lead paint or lead in the plumbing. It can affect your baby’s brain development. Test your home for lead and work with a professional to have it removed.

Stress

As you learn to deal effectively with stress, your baby benefits. Join a prenatal yoga class, exercise and try out a new breathing technique.

  • Recent studies indicate that too much stress during pregnancy puts your baby at risk for childhood emotional, physical and behavioral problems. These risks could include preterm birth, ADHD, obesity and learning disabilities.

Which lifestyle changes have you made to improve your child’s health? We’d love to hear about it.

Photo courtesy of istockphoto.

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UPMC Content 2

Smoking, Alcohol, and Drugs Can Harm Your Baby

As an expectant mother, you want your baby to be healthy. You can help by remembering that much of what you eat, drink, and breathe is passed along to your growing baby. Some things are good for your baby. Other things, like alcohol, cigarettes, drugs, and some medicines, can be harmful.

A baby receives food and oxygen through the placenta, which is attached to the baby’s umbilical cord. The placenta can’t tell the difference between what is good for your baby and what is harmful. That’s why you must make good choices.

Here is some information to help you understand how your health and habits can affect your unborn child.

Smoking and Pregnancy

The Surgeon General’s warning: “Smoking by pregnant women may result in fetal injury, premature birth, and low birth weight,” now appears on cigarette packs for good reason. Pregnant smokers have a higher chance of miscarriage and stillbirth. Babies of smoking mothers have a higher chance of being born early and too small. Low-birth-weight babies (less than 5 ½ pounds) can suffer serious health problems throughout their lives.

Tobacco smoke contains nicotine, arsenic, various tar products, and carbon monoxide. All of these are damaging to the body, and all of them can reach the baby through the placenta. For example, nicotine causes problems with the flow of blood through the blood vessels. Smoking during pregnancy may limit blood flow through the placenta and thus slow the baby’s growth.

Some pregnant women think that their babies are safe from these dangers because they do not inhale when they smoke. But tobacco smoke is absorbed through the mucous membranes of the mother’s mouth and throat. Although it may be less dangerous than inhaling, the body still absorbs harmful elements, and so does the baby.

Even non-smoking mothers and their babies are at risk when breathing smoke-filled air around them (second-hand smoke). Research also shows that babies exposed to smoke are twice as likely to die from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).

Smoking is a proven health hazard. Smokers decide to risk their health. Unborn babies don’t have the choice. Please make the right choice for your baby. Don’t smoke.

Alcohol and Pregnancy

When you eat or drink, so does your baby. Food and drink quickly enter your baby’s bloodstream through the placenta. It is important to drink a good amount of milk, water, and fruit juices to help your baby grow.

Just as these nutritious liquids reach your baby, so does alcohol. Drinking alcohol during pregnancy can cause fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). FAS is a group of mental and physical defects that may include:

  • Intellectual disability
  • Heart defects
  • Cleft palate
  • Defects of the face, fingers, arms, and legs

Children with FAS often are hyperactive and have limited attention spans. FAS children can suffer lifelong illness because of their mother’s use of alcohol.

Many pregnant women wonder if 1 or 2 drinks will harm their baby. Alcohol affects everyone differently. The alcohol the mother drinks is shared with her baby. The more she drinks, the more the baby receives, increasing the chance of serious problems. Medical experts have not been able to determine a safe amount of alcohol. Therefore, to protect your baby from alcohol-related danger, you should not drink any alcohol.

Drinking during the first 3 months of pregnancy is particularly dangerous. This is the most important time for the baby’s organs (including the brain, heart, and lungs) to grow. For this reason, you should stop alcohol use if you are planning to become pregnant. Several weeks may pass before you know you are pregnant. Don’t take the chance of drinking during a very important time in your baby’s development.

Drugs and Pregnancy

The average medicine cabinet has cold tablets, aspirin, allergy pills, and other over-the-counter medicine, as well as prescription drugs. Before you became pregnant, you may not have thought twice about taking something when you didn’t feel well. You must remember now that the medicine you take can affect your baby.

Because some medicines can harm your baby, you should ask your doctor before you take any medicine, dietary supplement, or herbals. Don’t take a chance with your baby’s health.

Below is information about some commonly used drugs:

  • Aspirin — This drug can be harmful, especially when large amounts are taken in late pregnancy. Both mother and baby may experience abnormal bleeding during delivery. Acetaminaphen (Tylenol®) is usually recommended instead.
  • Tranquilizers — An increased chance of cleft palate or cleft lip has been linked to some tranquilizers.
  • Caffeine — Although not usually thought of as a drug, this ingredient found in coffee, tea, chocolate, cola, and some pain medicines has caused birth defects in animals. While there is no proof that caffeine is harmful to humans, many doctors recommend no more than 2 to 3 servings of caffeine a day.
  • Vitamins — Take only what your doctor tells you to. Large doses of some vitamins, such as Vitamin A, can cause birth defects.

Illegal Drugs and Pregnancy

If you abuse drugs, you are taking a chance with your health and the health of your baby. Babies born to mothers using street drugs often are born smaller and too early. And they tend to have behavioral problems such as hyperactivity.

  • Marijuana — To get the full effect of marijuana, smokers inhale deeply and hold the smoke in the lungs as long as possible. There are many harmful gases in the smoke that are passed along to the baby. Marijuana may slow the baby’s growth. After the baby is born, breathing marijuana smoke can make the baby sick. The baby can have breathing problems and catch colds and other illnesses more easily than other children can.
  • Cocaine/Crack — Cocaine can cause many problems for your baby before and after birth. There is a higher risk of miscarriage and stillbirth. Babies born to women who abuse cocaine may be difficult to comfort and have feeding problems. They can require special care. Sometimes, they can have blood circulation problems and brain damage. Long-term behavioral problems may also result from use of this drug.
  • Heroin — If you are a heroin addict, your baby probably will be born addicted and will need special care and medicine as he or she goes through withdrawal. If you use heroin, your baby is at higher risk for premature birth and poor growth.

Other street drugs such as speed (amphetamines), LSD, hashish, uppers, and downers also can cause problems with your baby’s growth and health. Mothers with addiction problems may not have good nutrition and health care, causing more problems for their babies.

Help is Available

If you have a problem with alcohol or drug use, please seek help before becoming pregnant. If you are pregnant now, seek help as soon as possible. Don’t allow your baby to suffer because of your problems. Help is available for any drug or alcohol problem at hospitals and chemical dependency centers. Call United Way’s help line in your county, or call 412-255-1155 any time of the day or night for information about your county agency.

If you are breastfeeding, check with your pharmacist, doctor, or nurse before you take anything. Alcohol and some medicines and drugs have been found in mother’s milk.

If you have questions about how a drug (over-the-counter, prescription, or illegal) or any other substance affects pregnancy, talk with your doctor, or call the UPMC Center for Medical Genetics at 412-641-4168. For additional pregnancy-related information, visitmt (1)

HOW TO WRITE AN ARTICLE

  1. Get familiar with the type of article you want to write. As you’re figuring out your topic and focus, think about the type of article that will best suit the points that you want to convey. Some article types are better suited to certain topics. Some of the most common types of articles are:

    • News: This type of article presents facts about something that happened recently or that will happen in the near future. It usually covers the 5 Ws and H: who, what, where when, why and how.
    • Feature: This type of article presents information in a more creative, descriptive way than a straight news article. It can be an article about a person, a phenomenon, a place, or other subject.
    • Editorial: This article presents a writer’s opinions on a topic or debate. It is intended to persuade the reader to think a certain way about a topic.[1]
    • How-to: This article gives clear instructions and information about how to accomplish some task.
    • Profile: This article presents information about a person, using information that the writer typically gathers through interviews and background research.
  2. 2
    Brainstorm your topic. Make a list of potential topics. You might want to write about immigration or organic food or your local animal shelter. In order to write a coherent yet concise article, you need to narrow the topic. This will give you something more specific to write about, which will make for a more forceful article. Ask yourself these questions:

    • What interests you about this topic?
    • What is a point that people usually overlook?
    • What do you want people to know about this topic?
    • For example, if you want to write about organic farming, you might say to yourself, “I think it’s important to know what organic labeling means on food packages. It can be very confusing to know what it all means.”
  3. 3
    Choose something you’re passionate about. You should care about the topic you choose to write about. Your enthusiasm will show in your writing and will be much more engaging for your readers.

    • Your goal is to convey enough passion that your readers think the issue in your article is worth caring about.
  4. 4
    Conduct preliminary research. If you’re not at all familiar with your topic (if, for instance, you need to write on a specific topic for a class assignment), then you will need to start conducting some preliminary research.

    • Enter some key words into an online search engine. This can lead you to sources that write about your topic. These sources can also give you an idea of different approaches to the topic.
    • Read as much as you can on the topic. Visit your local library. Consult books, magazine articles, published interviews, and online features as well as news sources, blogs, and databases for information. A good place to start looking for data not readily apparent on the Internet is the Gale Directory of Databases, which exists in both book format (available in libraries) or online.
  5. 5
    Find a unique angle. When you have decided on your topic and you’ve narrowed it down to something more specific, think about how you can make this article stand out. If you are writing an article about something that other people are also writing about, try to be unique in how you approach the material. You should add to the conversation, not exist alongside it.

    • For example, for the organic food topic, you might focus on one grocery shopper who doesn’t understand organic food labeling. Use that opening anecdote to lead into your main argument, known as a “nut graph,” which summarizes your unique idea or point of view.
  6. 6
    Hone your argument. In most articles, the writer makes an argument. This is the main thrust of the article. Then the writer finds evidence to support this argument. In order to make a quality article, you need a quality argument. After you’ve settled on your unique angle, you can really zero in on the argument that you’re trying to make.

    • For example, if you are writing about how one person learns how to read organic labels, your overall argument might be that the public needs to be aware that many companies misuse organic labeling. This leads to dishonest practices in product advertising. Another topic might be: it’s important to know who owns your local media outlets. If corporate media organizations own your local newspaper, you may get very little media coverage of your area and not know much about your own community.
    • Write your argument in one sentence. Post it near your computer or writing area. This will help you stay focused as you start working on your article.

EditPart 2 of 5: Researching Your Idea

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    1
    Learn about your topic and argument. Start researching your specific topic and argument. Go beyond the preliminary research you already conducted. Learn the fundamental issues at stake, the pros and cons, what the experts say, and so on.

    • The best writers have a “documents state of mind.” They search both for primary (original, unpublished) documents as well as secondary documents on that subject.
      • Primary sources can include a transcript from a legislative hearing, lawsuit filing, county property indexes with folio numbers, discharge certificates from the military, and photos. Other primary sources could include government written records in the National Archives or special collections sections of your local or university library, insurance policies, corporate financial reports, or personal background reports.
      • Secondary sources comprise published databases, books, abstracts, articles in English and other languages, bibliographies, dissertations and reference books.
    • You can find information on the internet or in a library. You can also conduct interviews, watch documentaries, or consult other sources.
  2. 2
    Gather supporting evidence. Start identifying ways that you might support your overall argument. You should gather about 3-5 solid examples that support your overall argument.

    • You can make a longer list of evidence and examples. As you gather more evidence, you will be able to prioritize which ones are the strongest examples.
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    3
    Use reliable sources. Be wary when researching online. Draw only from reliable sources like reputable newspapers, experts on the topic, government websites, or university websites. Look for information that lists other sources, since this will help back up any claims made by your source. You can also find sources in print, and the same precautions should be taken there.
  4. 4
    Be sure to use a range of sources. Don’t assume that one source is completely accurate. This source includes specific information to support a particular argument. Therefore, the writer will omit other information that does not support the argument.

    • Get a well-rounded sense of your topic by looking at a range of sources.
  5. 5
    Keep track of your research sources. It’s important to write down where you get information. Then, when you’re writing your article, you can attribute your sources properly and completely.

    • Write down complete bibliographic information for each source. This typically includes: the author’s name, article title, publication title, year, page number, and publisher.
    • Choose a citation style sooner rather than later, so you can compile citation information in the correct format. MLA, APA, and Chicago are some of the most common citation styles.
  6. 6
    Avoid plagiarism. When you are looking at other sources, be careful about how you compile information. Sometimes, people copy text into a single document to use as notes for their article. But in doing so, they risk potential plagiarism because the copied text gets mixed up in their own written work. Be sure to keep careful track of which writing is not yours.

    • Don’t copy any text directly from another source. Paraphrase this text instead, and include a citation.

EditPart 3 of 5: Outlining Your Idea

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    Decide on the article’s length. Does this article have a word count? Do you need to fill a certain number of pages? Consider what type of content you’re writing about and how much space this will fill. Also, think about how much needs to be written in order to cover the topic adequately.
  2. 2
    Consider your audience. Think about who is going to read your article. You need to take into account the reading level, interests, expectations, and so on.

    • For example, if you are writing an article for a specialized academic audience, your tone and approach will be vastly different than if you’re writing an article for a popular magazine.
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    3
    Outline your article. Before you begin to formally write, write up an outline of your article. This outline will break down which information goes where. It serves as a guide to help you figure out where you need more information.

    • It’s helpful to start with the five-paragraph essay outline.[2] This outline devotes one paragraph to an introduction, three paragraphs for supporting evidence, and one paragraph for a conclusion. As you start plugging in information into your outline, you may find that this structure doesn’t suit your article so well.
    • You might also find that this structure doesn’t suit certain types of articles. For example, if you’re doing a profile of a person, your article may follow a different format.
  4. 4
    Choose quotes and other evidence to support your points. You will likely come across information that succinctly supports what you’re saying. This might include a statement that someone has made, or a sentence within another article that is particularly relevant. Choose the most important and descriptive part to use in your own piece. Add these quotes to your outline.

    • Make sure to fully attribute your quote and use quotation marks around anything that you didn’t write yourself. For example, you might write: A spokesperson for the dairy brand Milktoast says, “Our milk is labeled organic because our cows are only fed organic grass.”
    • Don’t overdo the quotes. Be selective about the quotes you do use. If you use too many quotes, your reader might think you’re using them as filler instead of coming up with your own material.

EditPart 4 of 5: Writing Your Article

  1. 1
    Write your introduction. A compelling introductory paragraph is crucial for hooking your reader. Within the first few sentences, the reader will evaluate whether your article is worth reading in its entirety. There are a number of ways to start an article, some of which include:

    • Telling an anecdote.
    • Using a quote from an interview subject.
    • Starting with a statistic.
    • Starting with straight facts of the story.
  2. 2
    Follow your outline. You’ve drafted your article in outline form, and this will help you focus on writing a solid and coherent article. The outline can also help you remember how details connect to each other. You will also be reminded of how certain quotes support certain points that you’re making.

    • Be flexible, however. Sometimes when you write, the flow makes sense in a way that is different from your outline. Be ready to change the direction of your piece if it seems to read better that way.
  3. 3
    Give proper context. Don’t assume your reader knows as much about your topic as you do. Think about the kinds of background information that your reader needs in order to understand the topic. [3] Depending on the type of article, you might give a paragraph with background information before proceeding into your supporting evidence. Or, you might weave in this contextual information throughout your article.
  4. 4
    Show with description. Use eloquent and descriptive language to give the reader a good picture of what you’re writing about. Carefully choose descriptive verbs and precise adjectives.

    • For example, you might write about the grocery shopper having trouble with organic food labels: “Charlie concentrated on jars of peanut butter on the shelf. The words ‘organic’ and ‘natural’ seemed to jump out at him. Every jar said something different. He felt they were shouting at him: ‘Choose me!’ ‘Buy me!’ The words started swimming in front of his eyes. He left the aisle without buying anything.”
  5. 5
    Include transitions. Link each separate idea with transitions so that your article reads as one cohesive piece. Start each new paragraph with a transition that links it to the previous paragraph.[4]

    • For example, use words or phrases such as “however…,” “another important point is…,” or “it must be remembered that…”
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    6
    Pay attention to style, structure and voice. You will want to write with a style, structure, and voice which makes sense for the type of article you are writing. Evaluate your audience to determine what the best method would be to present your information to them.

    • For example, a newspaper article will need to offer information in a narrative, chronological format. It should be written with accessible and straightforward language. An academic article will be written with more formal language. A how-to article might be written in more informal language.
    • When writing your article, use a strong “anchoring” sentence at the beginning of each paragraph to move your reader forward. Also, vary the length of your sentences, both short and long. If you find all your sentences are about the same word length, chances are your reader will be ‘lulled” into a standard rhythm and fall asleep. Sentences which are consistently choppy and short may give your reader the impression you are writing advertising copy instead of a well-thought-out article.
  7. 7
    Write a compelling conclusion. Wrap up your article with a dynamic conclusion. Depending on your article, this might be a conclusion that empowers the reader. For example, if you’re writing an opinion piece about food labeling, you might convey to your readers how they can learn more about labeling.

    • If you started with an anecdote or statistic in your introduction, think about reconnecting to this point in your conclusion.
    • Conclusions are often strongest when they use a last, brief concrete example that leads the reader to new insights. Conclusions should be ‘forward thinking’ — point the reader in a direction that keeps his or her “thirst” for knowledge going strong.
  8. 8
    Think about adding supplemental material. You can help your reader understand your topic more clearly by including graphics or other supplemental material.

    • For example, you could include photographs, charts, or infographics to illustrate some of your points.
    • You could also highlight or develop a major point more with a sidebar-type box. This is an extra bit of writing that delves more deeply into one aspect of the subject. For example, if you’re writing about your city’s film festival, you might include a sidebar write-up that highlights one of the films. These types of write-ups are usually short (50-75 words, depending on the publication outlet).
    • Remember, these materials are supplemental. This means that your article should stand on its own. Your writing needs to be understandable, clear and focused without the help of charts, photographs or other graphics.

EditPart 5 of 5: Finalizing Your Work

  1. 1
    Edit your work. Take some time to edit and revise your article. If time allows, wait for a day or two before editing. This will give you some distance from your article. Then you will be able to view your article with fresh eyes.

    • Look closely at the central argument or point you’re trying to make. Does everything in your article serve this central argument? Do you have a paragraph that is unrelated? If so, this paragraph should be eliminated or reframed so that it supports the main argument.
    • Eliminate any contradictory information in the article or address the contradictions, showing how the contradictory information is relevant to readers.
    • Rewrite sections or the entire thing as necessary. Revisions like this are common for all types of articles, so don’t feel like you’ve failed or are incompetent.
  2. 2
    Comb through for grammatical errors. Even when an article is well-written, it will not be taken as seriously if it has grammatical errors or spelling mistakes. Make sure your writing is forceful by cleaning up your grammar.

    • It’s helpful to print out a hard copy of your article. Go through it with a pen or pencil to catch mistakes. Then go back and correct these mistakes on the computer.
  3. 3
    Read your article out loud to yourself. Listen for tone, rhythm, sentence length, coherence, grammatical or content errors, and compelling argument(s). Think of your writing as a a piece of music, an auditory experience, and use your ears to evaluate the quality, strengths, and weaknesses.

    • It is common to be able to identify your own mistakes in grammar or writing while reading aloud as well; this could cut down on the feedback that you may receive from someone else.
  4. 4
    Have someone else read your article. Try showing the article to a friend, teacher, or other trusted individual to read it. Does this person understand the points you’re trying to make? Does he follow your logic?

    • This person may also catch errors and inconsistencies that you have overlooked.
  5. 5
    Write a headline. Give your article a suitable headline. The headline is short and to the point, using no more than about 10 words, if that. A headline should be action-oriented and should convey why the story is important. It should grab readers and draw them into the article.[5], [6]

    • If you want to convey slightly more information, write a sub-headline. This is a secondary sentence that builds on the headline.

EditTips

  • Make sure to give yourself plenty of time to write the article. If you don’t, you’ll be rushing at the last minute to create something that isn’t representative of what you can truly do.
  • To find out more about using primary research tools and databases, consult the Investigative Reporters and Editors website or get a copy of The Investigative Reporter’s Handbook: A Guide to Documents, Databases and Techniques, Fifth Edition. Authors: Brant Houston and Investigative Reporters and Editors Inc. (New York: Bedford/St. Martin’s 2009).

PARTS OF SPEECH IN LANGUAGE- matthews mwanza

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THE PARTS OF SPEECH
By Matthews Mwanza
Traditional grammar classifies words based on eight parts of speech: the verb, the noun, the pronoun, the adjective, the adverb, the preposition, the conjunction, and the interjection.
Each part of speech explains not what the word is, but how the word is used. In fact, the same word can be a noun in one sentence and a verb or adjective in the next. The next few examples show how a word’s part of speech can change from one sentence to the next, and following them is a series of sections on the individual parts of speech, followed by an exercise.
Books are made of ink, paper, and glue.
In this sentence, “books” is a noun, the subject of the sentence.
Deborah waits patiently while Bridget books the tickets.
Here “books” is a verb, and its subject is “Bridget.”
We walk down the street.
In this sentence, “walk” is a verb, and its subject is the pronoun “we.”
The mail carrier stood on the walk.
In this example, “walk” is a noun, which is part of a prepositional phrase describing where the mail carrier stood.
The town decided to build a new jail.
Here “jail” is a noun, which is the object of the infinitive phrase “to build.”
The sheriff told us that if we did not leave town immediately he would jail us.
Here “jail” is part of the compound verb “would jail.”
They heard high pitched cries in the middle of the night.
In this sentence, “cries” is a noun acting as the direct object of the verb “heard.”
The baby cries all night long and all day long.
But here “cries” is a verb that describes the actions of the subject of the sentence, the baby.
The next few sections explain each of the parts of speech in detail. When you have finished, you might want to test yourself by trying the exercise.

What is a verb?
The verb is perhaps the most important part of the sentence. A verbor compound verb asserts something about the subject of the sentence and express actions, events, or states of being. The verb or compound verb is the critical element of the predicate of a sentence.In each of the following sentences, the verb or compound verb ishighlighted:
Dracula bites his victims on the neck.
The verb “bites” describes the action Dracula takes.
In early October, Giselle will plant twenty tulip bulbs.
Here the compound verb “will plant” describes an action that will take place in the future.
My first teacher was Miss Crawford, but I remember the janitor Mr. Weatherbee more vividly.
In this sentence, the verb “was” (the simple past tense tense of “is”) identifies a particular person and the verb “remember” describes a mental action.
Karl Creelman bicycled around the world in 1899, but his diaries and his bicycle were destroyed.
In this sentence, the compound verb “were destroyed” describes an action which took place in the past.
What is a noun?
A noun is a word used to name a person, animal, place, thing, and abstract idea. Nouns are usually the first words which small children learn. The highlighted words in the following sentences are all nouns:
Late last year our neighbours bought a goat.Portia White was an opera singer.The bus inspector looked at all the passengers’ passes.According to Plutarch, the library at Alexandria was destroyed in 48 B.C.Philosophy is of little comfort to the starving.
A noun can function in a sentence as a subject, a direct object, an indirect object, a subject complement, an object complement, an appositive, an adjective or an adverb.
Noun Gender
Many common nouns, like “engineer” or “teacher,” can refer to men or women. Once, many English nouns would change form depending on their gender — for example, a man was called an “author” while a woman was called an “authoress” — but this use of gender-specific nouns is very rare today. Those that are still used occasionally tend to refer to occupational categories, as in the following sentences.
David Garrick was a very prominent eighteenth-century actor.Sarah Siddons was at the height of her career as an actress in the 1780s.The manager was trying to write a want ad, but he couldn’t decide whether he was advertising for a “waiter” or a “waitress”
Noun Plurals
Most nouns change their form to indicate number by adding “-s” or “-es”, as illustrated in the following pairs of sentences:
When Matthew was small he rarely told the truth if he thought he was going to be punished.Many people do not believe that truths are self-evident.As they walked through the silent house, they were startled by an unexpected echo.I like to shout into the quarry and listen to the echoes that return.He tripped over a box left carelessly in the hallway.Since we are moving, we will need many boxes.
There are other nouns which form the plural by changing the last letter before adding “s”. Some words ending in “f” form the plural by deleting “f” and adding “ves,” and words ending in “y” form the plural by deleting the “y” and adding “ies,” as in the following pairs of sentences:
The harbour at Marble Mountain has one wharf.There are several wharves in Halifax Harbour.Warsaw is their favourite city because it reminds them of their courtship.The vacation my grandparents won includes trips to twelve European cities.The children circled around the headmaster and shouted, “Are you a mouse or a man?”The audience was shocked when all five men admitted that they were afraid of mice.
Other nouns form the plural irregularly. If English is your first language, you probably know most of these already: when in doubt, consult a good dictionary.
Possessive Nouns
In the possessive case, a noun or pronoun changes its form to show that it owns or is closely related to something else. Usually, nouns become possessive by adding a combination of an apostrophe and the letter “s.”
You can form the possessive case of a singular noun that does not end in “s” by adding an apostrophe and “s,” as in the following sentences:
The red suitcase is Cassandra’s.The only luggage that was lost was the prime minister’s.The exhausted recruits were woken before dawn by the drill sergeant’s screams.The miner’s face was covered in coal dust.
You can form the possessive case of a singular noun that ends in “s” by adding an apostrophe alone or by adding an apostrophe and “s,” as in the following examples:
The bus’s seats are very uncomfortable.The bus’ seats are very uncomfortable.The film crew accidentally crushed the platypus’s eggs.The film crew accidentally crushed the platypus’ eggs.Felicia Hemans’s poetry was once more popular than Lord Byron’s.Felicia Hemans’ poetry was once more popular than Lord Byron’s.
You can form the possessive case of a plural noun that does not end in “s” by adding an apostrophe and a “s,” as in the following examples:
The children’s mittens were scattered on the floor of the porch.The sheep’s pen was mucked out every day.Since we have a complex appeal process, a jury’s verdict is not always final.The men’s hockey team will be playing as soon as the women’s team is finished.The hunter followed the moose’s trail all morning but lost it in the afternoon.
You can form the possessive case of a plural noun that does end in “s” by adding an apostrophe:
The concert was interrupted by the dogs’ barking, the ducks’ quacking, and the babies’ squalling.The janitors’ room is downstairs and to the left.My uncle spent many hours trying to locate the squirrels’ nest.The archivist quickly finished repairing the diaries’ bindings.Religion is usually the subject of the roommates’ many late night debates.
Using Possessive Nouns
When you read the following sentences, you will notice that a noun in the possessive case frequently functions as an adjective modifying another noun:
The miner’s face was covered in coal dust.
Here the possessive noun “miner’s” is used to modify the noun “face” and together with the article “the,” they make up the noun phrase that is the sentence’s subject.
The concert was interrupted by the dogs’ barking, the ducks’ quacking, and the babies’ squalling.
In this sentence, each possessive noun modifies a gerund. The possessive noun “dogs”‘ modifies “barking,” “ducks”‘ modifies “quacking,” and “babies”‘ modifies “squalling.”
The film crew accidentally crushed the platypus’s eggs.
In this example the possessive noun “platypus’s” modifies the noun “eggs” and the noun phrase “the platypus’s eggs” is the direct object of the verb “crushed.”
My uncle spent many hours trying to locate the squirrels’ nest.
In this sentence the possessive noun “squirrels”‘ is used to modify the noun “nest” and the noun phrase “the squirrels’ nest” is the object of the infinitive phrase “to locate.”
Types Of Nouns
There are many different types of nouns. As you know, you capitalise some nouns, such as “Canada” or “Louise,” and do not capitalise others, such as “badger” or “tree” (unless they appear at the beginning of a sentence). In fact, grammarians have developed a whole series of noun types, including the proper noun, the common noun, the concrete noun, the abstract noun, the countable noun (also called the count noun), the non-countable noun (also called the mass noun), and the collective noun. You should note that a noun will belong to more than one type: it will be proper or common, abstract or concrete, and countable or non-countable or collective.
If you are interested in the details of these different types, you can read about them in the following sections.
Proper Nouns
You always write a proper noun with a capital letter, since the noun represents the name of a specific person, place, or thing. The names of days of the week, months, historical documents, institutions, organisations, religions, their holy texts and their adherents are proper nouns. A proper noun is the opposite of a common noun
In each of the following sentences, the proper nouns are highlighted: The Maroons were transported from Jamaica and forced to build the fortifications in Halifax.Many people dread Monday mornings.Beltane is celebrated on the first of May.Abraham appears in the Talmud and in the Koran.Last year, I had a Baptist, a Buddhist, and a Gardnerian Witch as roommates.
Common Nouns
A common noun is a noun referring to a person, place, or thing in a general sense — usually, you should write it with a capital letter only when it begins a sentence. A common noun is the opposite of a proper noun.
In each of the following sentences, the common nouns are highlighted:
According to the sign, the nearest town is 60 miles away.All the gardens in the neighbourhood were invaded by beetles this summer.I don’t understand why some people insist on having six different kinds of mustard in their cupboards.The road crew was startled by the sight of three large moose crossing the road.Many child-care workers are underpaid.
Sometimes you will make proper nouns out of common nouns, as in the following examples:
The tenants in the Garnet Apartments are appealing the large and sudden increase in their rent.The meals in the Bouncing Bean Restaurant are less expensive than meals in ordinary restaurants.Many witches refer to the Renaissance as the Burning Times.The Diary of Anne Frank is often a child’s first introduction to the history of the Holocaust.
Concrete Nouns
A concrete noun is a noun which names anything (or anyone) that you can perceive through your physical senses: touch, sight, taste, hearing, or smell. A concrete noun is the opposite of a abstract noun.
The highlighted words in the following sentences are all concrete nouns:
The judge handed the files to the clerk.Whenever they take the dog to the beach, it spends hours chasing waves.The real estate agent urged the couple to buy the second house because it had new shingles.As the car drove past the park, the thump of a disco tune overwhelmed the string quartet’s rendition of a minuet.The book binder replaced the flimsy paper cover with a sturdy, cloth-covered board.
Abstract Nouns
An abstract noun is a noun which names anything which you can not perceive through your five physical senses, and is the opposite of a concrete noun. The highlighted words in the following sentences are all abstract nouns:
Buying the fire extinguisher was an afterthought.Tillie is amused by people who are nostalgic about childhood.Justice often seems to slip out of our grasp.Some scientists believe that schizophrenia is transmitted genetically.
Countable Nouns
A countable noun (or count noun) is a noun with both a singular and a plural form, and it names anything (or anyone) that you can count. You can make a countable noun plural and attach it to a plural verb in a sentence. Countable nouns are the opposite of non-countable nouns and collective nouns.
In each of the following sentences, the highlighted words are countable nouns:
We painted the table red and the chairs blue.Since he inherited his aunt’s library, Jerome spends every weekend indexing his books.Miriam found six silver dollars in the toe of a sock.The oak tree lost three branches in the hurricane.Over the course of twenty-seven years, Martha Ballad delivered just over eight hundred babies.
Non-Countable Nouns
A non-countable noun (or mass noun) is a noun which does not have a plural form, and which refers to something that you could (or would) not usually count. A non-countable noun always takes a singular verb in a sentence. Non-countable nouns are similar to collective nouns, and are the opposite of countable nouns.
The highlighted words in the following sentences are non-countable nouns:
Joseph Priestly discovered oxygen.
The word “oxygen” cannot normally be made plural.
Oxygen is essential to human life.
Since “oxygen” is a non-countable noun, it takes the singular verb “is” rather than the plural verb “are.”
We decided to sell the furniture rather than take it with us when we moved.
You cannot make the noun “furniture” plural.
The furniture is heaped in the middle of the room.
Since “furniture” is a non-countable noun, it takes a singular verb, “is heaped.”
The crew spread the gravel over the roadbed.
You cannot make the non-countable noun “gravel” plural.
Gravel is more expensive than I thought.
Since “gravel” is a non-countable noun, it takes the singular verb form “is.”
Collective Nouns
A collective noun is a noun naming a group of things, animals, or persons. You could count the individual members of the group, but you usually think of the group as a whole is generally as one unit. You need to be able to recognise collective nouns in order to maintain subject-verb agreement. A collective noun is similar to a non-countable noun, and is roughly the opposite of a countable noun.
In each of the following sentences, the highlighted word is a collective noun:
The flock of geese spends most of its time in the pasture.
The collective noun “flock” takes the singular verb “spends.”
The jury is dining on take-out chicken tonight.
In this example the collective noun “jury” is the subject of the singular compound verb “is dining.”
The steering committee meets every Wednesday afternoon.
Here the collective noun “committee” takes a singular verb, “meets.”
The class was startled by the bursting light bulb.
In this sentence the word “class” is a collective noun and takes the singular compound verb “was startled.”
What is a pronoun?
A pronoun can replace a noun or another pronoun. You use pronouns like “he,” “which,” “none,” and “you” to make your sentences less cumbersome and less repetitive.
Grammarians classify pronouns into several types, including the personal pronoun, the demonstrative pronoun, the interrogative pronoun, the indefinite pronoun, the relative pronoun, the reflexive pronoun, and the intensive pronoun.
Personal Pronouns
A personal pronoun refers to a specific person or thing and changes its form to indicate person, number, gender, and case.
Subjective Personal Pronouns
A subjective personal pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as the subject of the sentence. The subjective personal pronouns are “I,” “you,” “she,” “he,” “it,” “we,” “you,” “they.”
In the following sentences, each of the highlighted words is a subjective personal pronoun and acts as the subject of the sentence:
I was glad to find the bus pass in the bottom of the green knapsack.You are surely the strangest child I have ever met.He stole the selkie’s skin and forced her to live with him.When she was a young woman, she earned her living as a coal miner.After many years, they returned to their homeland.We will meet at the library at 3:30 p.m.It is on the counter.Are you the delegates from Malagawatch?
Objective Personal Pronouns
An objective personal pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as an object of a verb, compound verb, preposition, or infinitive phrase. The objective personal pronouns are: “me,” “you,” “her,” “him,” “it,” “us,” “you,” and “them.”
In the following sentences, each of the highlighted words is an objective personal pronoun:
Seamus stole the selkie’s skin and forced her to live with him.
The objective personal pronoun “her” is the direct object of the verb “forced” and the objective personal pronoun “him” is the object of the preposition “with.”
After reading the pamphlet, Judy threw it into the garbage can.
The pronoun “it” is the direct object of the verb “threw.”
The agitated assistant stood up and faced the angry delegates and said, “Our leader will address you in five minutes.”
In this sentence, the pronoun “you” is the direct object of the verb “address.”
Deborah and Roberta will meet us at the newest café in the market.
Here the objective personal pronoun “us” is the direct object of the compound verb “will meet.”
Give the list to me.
Here the objective personal pronoun “me” is the object of the preposition “to.”
I’m not sure that my contact will talk to you.
Similarly in this example, the objective personal pronoun “you” is the object of the preposition “to.”
Christopher was surprised to see her at the drag races.
Here the objective personal pronoun “her” is the object of the infinitive phrase “to see.”
Possessive Personal Pronouns
A possessive pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as a marker of possession and defines who owns a particular object or person. The possessive personal pronouns are “mine,” “yours,” “hers,” “his,” “its,” “ours,” and “theirs.” Note that possessive personal pronouns are very similar to possessive adjectives like “my,” “her,” and “their.”
In each of the following sentences, the highlighted word is a possessive personal pronoun:
The smallest gift is mine.
Here the possessive pronoun “mine” functions as a subject complement.
This is yours.
Here too the possessive pronoun “yours” functions as a subject complement.
His is on the kitchen counter.
In this example, the possessive pronoun “his” acts as the subject of the sentence.
Theirs will be delivered tomorrow.
In this sentence, the possessive pronoun “theirs” is the subject of the sentence.
Ours is the green one on the corner.
Here too the possessive pronoun “ours” function as the subject of the sentence.
Demonstrative Pronouns
A demonstrative pronoun points to and identifies a noun or a pronoun. “This” and “these” refer to things that are nearby either in space or in time, while “that” and “those” refer to things that are farther away in space or time.
The demonstrative pronouns are “this,” “that,” “these,” and “those.” “This” and “that” are used to refer to singular nouns or noun phrases and “these” and “those” are used to refer to plural nouns and noun phrases. Note that the demonstrative pronouns are identical to demonstrative adjectives, though, obviously, you use them differently. It is also important to note that “that” can also be used as a relative pronoun.
In the following sentences, each of the highlighted words is a demonstrative pronoun:
This must not continue.
Here “this” is used as the subject of the compound verb “must not continue.”
This is puny; that is the tree I want.
In this example “this” is used as subject and refers to something close to the speaker. The demonstrative pronoun “that” is also a subject but refers to something farther away from the speaker.
Three customers wanted these.
Here “these” is the direct object of the verb “wanted.”
Interrogative Pronouns
An interrogative pronoun is used to ask questions. The interrogative pronouns are “who,” “whom,” “which,” “what” and the compounds formed with the suffix “ever” (“whoever,” “whomever,” “whichever,” and “whatever”). Note that either “which” or “what” can also be used as an interrogative adjective, and that “who,” “whom,” or “which” can also be used as a relative pronoun.
You will find “who,” “whom,” and occasionally “which” used to refer to people, and “which” and “what” used to refer to things and to animals.
“Who” acts as the subject of a verb, while “whom” acts as the object of a verb, preposition, or a verbal.
The highlighted word in each of the following sentences is an interrogative pronoun:
Which wants to see the dentist first?
“Which” is the subject of the sentence?
Who wrote the novel Rockbound?
Similarly “who” is the subject of the sentence?
Whom do you think we should invite?
In this sentence, “whom” is the object of the verb “invite.”
To whom do you wish to speak?
Here the interrogative pronoun “whom ” is the object of the preposition “to.”
Who will meet the delegates at the train station?
In this sentence, the interrogative pronoun “who” is the subject of the compound verb “will meet.”
To whom did you give the paper?
In this example the interrogative pronoun “whom” is the object of the preposition “to.”
What did she say?
Here the interrogative pronoun “what” is the direct object of the verb “say.”

Relative Pronouns
You can use a relative pronoun is used to link one phrase or clause to another phrase or clause. The relative pronouns are “who,” “whom,” “that,” and “which.” The compounds “whoever,” “whomever,” and “whichever” are also relative pronouns.
You can use the relative pronouns “who” and “whoever” to refer to the subject of a clause or sentence, and “whom” and “whomever” to refer to the objects of a verb, a verbal or a preposition.
In each of the following sentences, the highlighted word is a relative pronoun.
You may invite whomever you like to the party.
The relative pronoun “whomever” is the direct object of the compound verb “may invite.”
The candidate who wins the greatest popular vote is not always elected.
In this sentence, the relative pronoun is the subject of the verb “wins” and introduces the subordinate clause “who wins the greatest popular vote.” This subordinate clause acts as an adjective modifying “candidate.”
In a time of crisis, the manager asks the workers whom she believes to be the most efficient to arrive an hour earlier than usual.
In this sentence “whom” is the direct object of the verb “believes” and introduces the subordinate clause “whom she believes to be the most efficient”. This subordinate clause modifies the noun “workers.”
Whoever broke the window will have to replace it.
Here “whoever” functions as the subject of the verb “broke.”
The crate which was left in the corridor has now been moved into the storage closet.
In this example “which” acts as the subject of the compound verb “was left” and introduces the subordinate clause “which was left in the corridor.” The subordinate clause acts as an adjective modifying the noun “crate.”
I will read whichever manuscript arrives first.
Here “whichever” modifies the noun “manuscript” and introduces the subordinate clause “whichever manuscript arrives first.” The subordinate clause functions as the direct object of the compound verb “will read.”
Indefinite Pronouns
An indefinite pronoun is a pronoun referring to an identifiable but not specified person or thing. An indefinite pronoun conveys the idea of all, any, none, or some.
The most common indefinite pronouns are “all,” “another,” “any,” “anybody,” “anyone,” “anything,” “each,” “everybody,” “everyone,” “everything,” “few,” “many,” “nobody,” “none,” “one,” “several,” “some,” “somebody,” and “someone.” Note that some indefinite pronouns can also be used as indefinite adjectives.
The highlighted words in the following sentences are indefinite pronouns:
Many were invited to the lunch but only twelve showed up.
Here “many” acts as the subject of the compound verb “were invited.”
The office had been searched and everything was thrown onto the floor.
In this example, “everything” acts as a subject of the compound verb “was thrown.”
We donated everything we found in the attic to the woman’s shelter garage sale.
In this sentence, “everything” is the direct object of theverb “donated.”
Although they looked everywhere for extra copies of the magazine, they found none.
Here too the indefinite pronoun functions as a direct object: “none” is the direct object of “found.”
Make sure you give everyone a copy of the amended bylaws.
In this example, “everyone” is the indirect object of the verb “give” — the direct object is the noun phrase “a copy of the amended bylaws.”
Give a registration package to each.
Here “each” is the object of the preposition “to.”
Reflexive Pronouns
You can use a reflexive pronoun to refer back to the subject of the clause or sentence.
The reflexive pronouns are “myself,” “yourself,” “herself,” “himself,” “itself,” “ourselves,” “yourselves,” and “themselves.” Note each of these can also act as an intensive pronoun.
Each of the highlighted words in the following sentences is a reflexive pronoun:
Diabetics give themselves insulin shots several times a day.The Dean often does the photocopying herself so that the secretaries can do more important work.After the party, I asked myself why I had faxed invitations to everyone in my office building.Richard usually remembered to send a copy of his e-mail tohimself.Although the landlord promised to paint the apartment, we ended up doing it ourselves.
Intensive Pronouns
An intensive pronoun is a pronoun used to emphasise its antecedent. Intensive pronouns are identical in form to reflexive pronouns.
The highlighted words in the following sentences are intensive pronouns:
I myself believe that aliens should abduct my sister.The Prime Minister himself said that he would lower taxes.They themselves promised to come to the party even though they had a final exam at the same time.
What is an adjective?
An adjective modifies a noun or a pronoun by describing, identifying, or quantifying words. An adjective usually precedes the noun or the pronoun which it modifies.
In the following examples, the highlighted words are adjectives:
The truck-shaped balloon floated over the treetops.Mrs. Morrison papered her kitchen walls with hideous wall paper.The small boat foundered on the wine dark sea.The coal mines are dark and dank.Many stores have already begun to play irritating Christmasmusic.A battered music box sat on the mahogany sideboard.The back room was filled with large, yellow rain boots.
An adjective can be modified by an adverb, or by a phrase or clausefunctioning as an adverb. In the sentence
My husband knits intricately patterned mittens.
for example, the adverb “intricately” modifies the adjective “patterned.”
Some nouns, many pronouns, and many participle phrases can also act as adjectives. In the sentence
Eleanor listened to the muffled sounds of the radio hiddenunder her pillow.
for example, both highlighted adjectives are past participles.

Grammarians also consider articles (“the,” “a,” “an”) to be adjectives.
Possessive Adjectives
A possessive adjective (“my,” “your,” “his,” “her,” “its,” “our,” “their”) is similar or identical to a possessive pronoun; however, it is used as an adjective and modifies a noun or a noun phrase, as in the following sentences:
I can’t complete my assignment because I don’t have the textbook.
In this sentence, the possessive adjective “my” modifies “assignment” and the noun phrase “my assignment” functions as an object. Note that the possessive pronoun form “mine” is not used to modify a noun or noun phrase.
What is your phone number.
Here the possessive adjective “your” is used to modify the noun phrase “phone number”; the entire noun phrase “your phone number” is a subject complement. Note that the possessive pronoun form “yours” is not used to modify a noun or a noun phrase.
The bakery sold his favourite type of bread.
In this example, the possessive adjective “his” modifies the noun phrase “favourite type of bread” and the entire noun phrase “his favourite type of bread” is the direct object of the verb “sold.”
After many years, she returned to her homeland.
Here the possessive adjective “her” modifies the noun “homeland” and the noun phrase “her homeland” is the object of the preposition”to.” Note also that the form “hers” is not used to modify nouns or noun phrases.
We have lost our way in this wood.
In this sentence, the possessive adjective “our” modifies “way” and the noun phrase “our way” is the direct object of the compound verb”have lost”. Note that the possessive pronoun form “ours” is not used to modify nouns or noun phrases.
In many fairy tales, children are neglected by their parents.
Here the possessive adjective “their” modifies “parents” and the noun phrase “their parents” is the object of the preposition “by.” Note that the possessive pronoun form “theirs” is not used to modify nouns or noun phrases.
The cat chased its ball down the stairs and into the backyard.
In this sentence, the possessive adjective “its” modifies “ball” and the noun phrase “its ball” is the object of the verb “chased.” Note that “its” is the possessive adjective and “it’s” is a contraction for “it is.”
Demonstrative Adjectives
The demonstrative adjectives “this,” “these,” “that,” “those,” and “what” are identical to the demonstrative pronouns, but are used as adjectives to modify nouns or noun phrases, as in the following sentences:
When the librarian tripped over that cord, she dropped a pile of books.
In this sentence, the demonstrative adjective “that” modifies the noun “cord” and the noun phrase “that cord” is the object of the preposition “over.”
This apartment needs to be fumigated.
Here “this” modifies “apartment” and the noun phrase “this apartment” is the subject of the sentence.
Even though my friend preferred those plates, I bought these.
In the subordinate clause, “those” modifies “plates” and the noun phrase “those plates” is the object of the verb “preferred.” In the independent clause, “these” is the direct object of the verb “bought.”
Note that the relationship between a demonstrative adjective and a demonstrative pronoun is similar to the relationship between a possessive adjective and a possessive pronoun, or to that between a interrogative adjective and an interrogative pronoun.
Interrogative Adjectives
An interrogative adjective (“which” or “what”) is like an interrogative pronoun, except that it modifies a noun or noun phrase rather than standing on its own (see also demonstrative adjectives and possessive adjectives):
Which plants should be watered twice a week?
Like other adjectives, “which” can be used to modify a noun or a noun phrase. In this example, “which” modifies “plants” and the noun phrase “which plants” is the subject of the compound verb “should be watered”:
What book are you reading?
In this sentence, “what” modifies “book” and the noun phrase “what book” is the direct object of the compound verb “are reading.”
Indefinite Adjectives
An indefinite adjective is similar to an indefinite pronoun, except that it modifies a noun, pronoun, or noun phrase, as in the following sentences:
Many people believe that corporations are under-taxed.
The indefinite adjective “many” modifies the noun “people” and the noun phrase “many people” is the subject of the sentence.
I will send you any mail that arrives after you have moved to Sudbury.
The indefinite adjective “any” modifies the noun “mail” and the noun phrase “any mail” is the direct object of the compound verb “will send.”
They found a few goldfish floating belly up in the swan pound.
In this example the indefinite adjective modifies the noun “goldfish” and the noun phrase is the direct object of the verb “found”:
The title of Kelly’s favourite game is “All dogs go to heaven.”
Here the indefinite pronoun “all” modifies “dogs” and the full title is a subject complement.

What is an adverb?
An adverb can modify a verb, an adjective, another adverb, a phrase, or a clause. An adverb indicates manner, time, place, cause, or degree and answers questions such as “how,” “when,” “where,” “how much”.
While some adverbs can be identified by their characteristic “ly” suffix, most of them must be identified by untangling the grammatical relationships within the sentence or clause as a whole. Unlike an adjective, an adverb can be found in various places within the sentence.
In the following examples, each of the highlighted words is an adverb:
The seamstress quickly made the mourning clothes.
In this sentence, the adverb “quickly” modifies the verb “made” and indicates in what manner (or how fast) the clothing was constructed.
The midwives waited patiently through a long labour.
Similarly in this sentence, the adverb “patiently” modifies the verb “waited” and describes the manner in which the midwives waited.
The boldly spoken words would return to haunt the rebel.
In this sentence the adverb “boldly” modifies the adjective “spoken.”
We urged him to dial the number more expeditiously.
Here the adverb “more” modifies the adverb “expeditiously.”
Unfortunately, the bank closed at three today.
In this example, the adverb “unfortunately” modifies the entire sentence.
Conjunctive Adverbs
You can use a conjunctive adverb to join two clauses together. Some of the most common conjunctive adverbs are “also,” “consequently,” “finally,” “furthermore,” “hence,” “however,” “incidentally,” “indeed,” “instead,” “likewise,” “meanwhile,” “nevertheless,” “next,” “nonetheless,” “otherwise,” “still,” “then,” “therefore,” and “thus.” A conjunctive adverb is not strong enough to join two independent clauses without the aid of a semicolon.
The highlighted words in the following sentences are conjunctive adverbs:
The government has cut university budgets; consequently, class sizes have been increased.He did not have all the ingredients the recipe called for;therefore, he decided to make something else.The report recommended several changes to the ways the corporation accounted for donations; furthermore, it suggested that a new auditor be appointed immediately.The crowd waited patiently for three hours; finally, the doors to the stadium were opened.Batman and Robin fruitlessly searched the building; indeed, the Joker had escaped through a secret door in the basement.
What is a preposition?
A preposition links nouns, pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence. The word or phrase that the preposition introduces is called the object of the preposition.
A preposition usually indicates the temporal, spatial or logical relationship of its object to the rest of the sentence as in the following examples:
The book is on the table.The book is beneath the table.The book is leaning against the table.The book is beside the table.She held the book over the table.She read the book during class.
In each of the preceding sentences, a preposition locates the noun “book” in space or in time.
A prepositional phrase is made up of the preposition, its object and any associated adjectives or adverbs. A prepositional phrase can function as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. The most common prepositions are “about,” “above,” “across,” “after,” “against,” “along,” “among,” “around,” “at,” “before,” “behind,” “below,” “beneath,” “beside,” “between,” “beyond,” “but,” “by,” “despite,” “down,” “during,” “except,” “for,” “from,” “in,” “inside,” “into,” “like,” “near,” “of,” “off,” “on,” “onto,” “out,” “outside,” “over,” “past,” “since,” “through,” “throughout,” “till,” “to,” “toward,” “under,” “underneath,” “until,” “up,” “upon,” “with,” “within,” and “without.”
Each of the highlighted words in the following sentences is a preposition:
The children climbed the mountain without fear.
In this sentence, the preposition “without” introduces the noun “fear.” The prepositional phrase “without fear” functions as an adverb describing how the children climbed.
There was rejoicing throughout the land when the government was defeated.
Here, the preposition “throughout” introduces the noun phrase “the land.” The prepositional phrase acts as an adverb describing the location of the rejoicing.
The spider crawled slowly along the banister.
The preposition “along” introduces the noun phrase “the banister” and the prepositional phrase “along the banister” acts as an adverb, describing where the spider crawled.
The dog is hiding under the porch because it knows it will be punished for chewing up a new pair of shoes.
Here the preposition “under” introduces the prepositional phrase “under the porch,” which acts as an adverb modifying the compound verb “is hiding.”
The screenwriter searched for the manuscript he was certain was somewhere in his office.
Similarly in this sentence, the preposition “in” introduces a prepositional phrase “in his office,” which acts as an adverb describing the location of the missing papers.
What is a conjunction?
You can use a conjunction to link words, phrases, and clauses, as in the following example:
I ate the pizza and the pasta.Call the movers when you are ready.
Co-ordinating Conjunctions

You use a co-ordinating conjunction (“and,” “but,” “or,” “nor,” “for,” “so,” or “yet”) to join individual words, phrases, and independent clauses. Note that you can also use the conjunctions “but” and “for” as prepositions.
In the following sentences, each of the highlighted words is a co-ordinating conjunction:
Lilacs and violets are usually purple.
In this example, the co-ordinating conjunction “and” links two nouns.
This movie is particularly interesting to feminist film theorists,for the screenplay was written by Mae West.
In this example, the co-ordinating conjunction “for” is used to link two independent clauses.
Daniel’s uncle claimed that he spent most of his youth dancing on rooftops and swallowing goldfish.
Here the co-ordinating conjunction “and” links two participle phrases (“dancing on rooftops” and “swallowing goldfish”) which act as adverbs describing the verb “spends.”
Subordinating Conjunctions
A subordinating conjunction introduces a dependent clause and indicates the nature of the relationship among the independent clause(s) and the dependent clause(s).
The most common subordinating conjunctions are “after,” “although,” “as,” “because,” “before,” “how,” “if,” “once,” “since,” “than,” “that,” “though,” “till,” “until,” “when,” “where,” “whether,” and “while.”
Each of the highlighted words in the following sentences is a subordinating conjunction:
After she had learned to drive, Alice felt more independent.
The subordinating conjunction “after” introduces the dependent clause “After she had learned to drive.”
If the paperwork arrives on time, your cheque will be mailed on Tuesday.
Similarly, the subordinating conjunction “if” introduces the dependent clause “If the paperwork arrives on time.”
Gerald had to begin his thesis over again when his computer crashed.
The subordinating conjunction “when” introduces the dependent clause “when his computer crashed.”
Midwifery advocates argue that home births are safer becausethe mother and baby are exposed to fewer people and fewer germs.
In this sentence, the dependent clause “because the mother and baby are exposed to fewer people and fewer germs” is introduced by the subordinating conjunction “because.”
Correlative Conjunctions
Correlative conjunctions always appear in pairs — you use them to link equivalent sentence elements. The most common correlative conjunctions are “both…and,” “either…or,” “neither…nor,”, “not only…but also,” “so…as,” and “whether…or.” (Technically correlative conjunctions consist simply of a co-ordinating conjunction linked to an adjective or adverb.)
The highlighted words in the following sentences are correlative conjunctions:
Both my grandfather and my father worked in the steel plant.
In this sentence, the correlative conjunction “both…and” is used to link the two noun phrases that act as the compound subject of the sentence: “my grandfather” and “my father”.
Bring either a Jello salad or a potato scallop.
Here the correlative conjunction “either…or” links two noun phrases: “a Jello salad” and “a potato scallop.”
Corinne is trying to decide whether to go to medical school orto go to law school.
Similarly, the correlative conjunction “whether … or” links the two infinitive phrases “to go to medical school” and “to go to law school.”
The explosion destroyed not only the school but also the neighbouring pub.
In this example the correlative conjunction “not only … but also” links the two noun phrases (“the school” and “neighbouring pub”) which act as direct objects.

Note: some words which appear as conjunctions can also appear as prepositions or as adverbs.
What is an interjection?
An interjection is a word added to a sentence to convey emotion. It is not grammatically related to any other part of the sentence.
You usually follow an interjection with an exclamation mark. Interjections are uncommon in formal academic prose, except in direct quotations.
The highlighted words in the following sentences are interjections:
Ouch, that hurt!Oh no, I forgot that the exam was today.Hey! Put that down!I heard one guy say to another guy, “He has a new car, eh?”I don’t know about you but, good lord, I think taxes are too high!

End of Lecture

MATHEMATICS ON MENSURATION-Mwanza Matthews

Mensuration

Introduction

Mensuration is the branch of mathematics which deals with the study of geometric shapes, their area, volume and different parameters in geometric objects. In the broadest sense, it is all about the process of measurement. It involves the use of non-standard and standard units of measuring of two dimensional and three dimensional shapes. This unit therefore dwells on solving practical problems on mensuration and as well as solving problems using formulae.

Outcomes

Outcomes ·         Discuss mensuration , including definitions

·         Solve problems involving two- dimensional and three –dimensional figures, including cones, cuboids, cubes, cylinders and pyramids.

·         Solve practically and by use of formula problems on mensuration

·         Use non-standard and standard units, including length, capacity, time and temperature.

·         Teach mensuration at primary school level.

At the end of this unit learners should be able to

Terminology Area Is the extent of part of a surface enclosed within a boundary, or the extent of the surface of all or part of a solid. The area of a square or rectangle can be calculated by multiplying together the lengths of two adjacent sides.
Perimeter Is a boundary that encloses an area?
Volume Is the size of a three-dimensional space enclosed within or occupied by an object
Capacity Is a measure of the amount that can be held or contained by something
Circumference Is the distance around the edge of a circle
  Temperature Is the degree of heat as an inherent quality of objects expressed as hotness or coldness relative to something else

Terminologies

Non- standard and standard unit of measure

We use non-standard units of length to bridge the gap between comparison work and the introduction of standard units. The non- standard units measure for length are the natural units of measure, the parts of the body-foot, hand span and feet strides and unit model such as keys, paperclips and sticks. For measuring capacity we use small containers such as small tins, spoons, cups and lids to fill up larger containers. For time we may rely on some birds suck as a domestic fowl or the movement of the sun’s shadow between two fixed points. Temperature is an abstract concept and as such we need to be tactful when introducing it to basic level learners.

 

 

 

Activity i.                    What do you think might be the difficulties that would arise in the world if each nation had a local unit of measure different from the others?

ii.                  In your local environment make a sundial using a stick stuck in clay. Place it on a sheet of paper and set the sundial outside your room. When lessons, for your class begins, mark the shadow’s position when the sessions start, break time, lunch time, and knock-off time. Write events against the shadows.

iii.                Discuss four practical activities which you would give a grade 6 class on Temperature in order to arouse interest.

iv.                State at least five (5) practical activities you would use to introduce each of the following concepts to a primary school class i.e. grade 6

·         Temperature

·         Time

·         Capacity

·         Area

·         Perimeter

·         Volume

There is need to have a common unit of measure for easy communication. This is what made nations to come together and create standard units of measure. Basic level learners are introduced to a meter (m), a centimeter (cm) and a kilometer (km). The standard unit of measure for capacity is the Litre (L). 1000ml make 1 litre. Natural measures of time are day, week, month, seasons, and year. We measure temperature using an instrument called Thermometer. We have two types of thermometers to use when measuring temperature, ordinary and clinical thermometers. Temperature of freezing water is zero degree celsius and that of boiling water is always very close to 1000c depending on the altitude of the place. At sea level, the boiling point of water is exactly 1000c.

Activity (i)        Discuss the importance of a standard unit for measuring small lengths. Show the need for a standard unit smaller than a meter by measuring short objects such as a pen to be measured using a meter stick.

(ii)      Have either an ordinally or clinical thermometer with you. Put water in various labeled containers at different temperatures. Demonstrate how to measure temperature to primary school level learners.

Two and Three Dimensional Shapes

There are two types of geometric shapes

  1. 2 dimentional Shapes e.g. Square, Rectangle, Parallelogram, Rhombus, Triangle, Kite,  Trapezoid, Circle
  2. 3 dimentional shapes, have surface area and volume e.g. Cube, Rectangular Prism (Cuboid), Cylinder, Cone, Sphere and Hemisphere, Prism, Pyramid.

Some important mensuration formulas

Triangle
Trapezium
Parallelogram A=b x h
Circle

In this section the formulas for areas and perimeters of 2 dimension shapes are discussed.


Area of Triangle

Area of a Rhombus

definitions

a = area
d1 = length of one diagonal
d2 = length of the other diagonal

      P =  4L where L is length of a side

Area of a Kite

The area of a kite is half the product of the diagonals. Note: This formula works for the area of a rhombus as well, since a rhombus is a special kind of kite. Note that the diagonals of a kite are perpendicular.

Kite

d1 = long diagonal of kite d2 = short diagonal of kite

Area = (½) d1d2

Worked examples

You are advised to go through all the following examples before attempting questions in the activity section.

  1. A square and a rectangular field with measurements as given in the figure have the same perimeter. Which field has a larger area?

 

 

Answer

Perimeter of Square = 4 x side = 4 x 60 = 240m2

Area of Square = Side² = 60² = 3600m2

Perimeter of Rectangle = 2(length + breadth)

Or, 240 = 2(80 + breadth)

Or, 80 + breadth = 120

Or, breadth = 120-80 = 40 meters

Area of rectangle = length x breadth = 80 x 40 = 3200m2

Now it is clear that the area of the square field is greater than the area of the rectangular field.

  1. Mrs. Kapasa has a square plot with the measurement as shown in the figure. She wants to construct a house in the middle of the plot. A garden is developed around the house. Find the total cost of developing a garden around the house at the rate of K550 per m².

Answer: Area of the square plot = Side² = 25² = 625m2

Area of the house construction part = length x breadth

= 20 x 15 = 300 m2

So, area of the garden = 625-300=325m2

Cost of developing the garden = Area x Rate

= 300 x 550 = K165, 000

  1. The shape of a garden is rectangular in the middle and semi circular at the ends as shown in the diagram. Find the area and the perimeter of this garden [Length of rectangle is 20 – (3.5 + 3.5) meters].

Answer: Area of the rectangular part = length x breadth

= 20 x 7 = 140 m2

Area of Semicircular portions: = п x r2

Perimeter of the shape = 22 + 20 + 20 = 62 metres

  1. A flooring tile has the shape of a parallelogram whose base is 24 cm and the corresponding height is 10 cm. How many such tiles are required to cover a floor of area 1080 m2? (If required you can split the tiles in whatever way you want to fill up the corners).

Answer: Area of the Parallelogram = base x height

= 24 x 10 = 240 sq cm

(area of floor is converted into square cms)

  1. An ant is moving around a few food pieces of different shapes scattered on the floor. For which food-piece would the ant have to take a longer round? Remember, circumference of a circle can be obtained by using the expression c = 2πr, where r is the radius of the circle.

6.      A kite has diagonals of 3 cm and 5 cm, what is its Area?

Area = (3 cm × 5 cm)/2 = 7.5 cm2

Activity 1. The shape of the top surface of a table is a trapezium. Find its area if its parallel sides are 1 m and 1.2 m and perpendicular distance between them is 0.8 m.

2. The area of a trapezium is 34 cm² and the length of one of the parallel sides is 10 cm and its height is 4 cm. Find the length of the other parallel side.

3. Length of the fence of a trapezium shaped field ABCD is 120 m. If BC = 48 m, CD = 17 m and AD = 40 m, find the area of this field. Side AB is perpendicular to the parallel sides AD and BC.

4. The diagonal of a quadrilateral shaped field is 24 m and the perpendiculars dropped on it from the remaining opposite vertices are 8 m and 13 m. Find the area of the field.

5. The diagonals of a rhombus are 7.5 cm and 12 cm. Find its area.

6. Find the area of a rhombus whose side is 6 cm and whose altitude is 4 cm. If one of its diagonals is 8 cm long, find the length of the other diagonal.

7. The floor of a building consists of 3000 tiles which are rhombus shaped and each of its diagonals are 45 cm and 30 cm in length. Find the total cost of polishing the floor, if the cost per m² is Rs 4.

8. Mr. Kapasa wants to buy a trapezium shaped field. Its side along the river is parallel to and twice the side along the road. If the area of this field is 10500 m2 and the perpendicular distance between the two parallel sides is 100 m, find the length of the side along the river.

 

Some important mensuration formulas

In this section the formulas for volumes of 3 dimension shapes are discussed.

Cube
Cuboid V = l x b x h SA = 2bl + 2hb + 2hl
Cylinder
Sphere
Prism V = base area x height
Pyramid
Cone

Worked examples

The student is advised to go through all the following examples before attempting questions in the activity section.

  1. There are two cuboidal boxes as shown in the adjoining figure. Which box requires the lesser amount of material to make?

Answer: Volume of the Cuboid = l x b x h

= 60 x 40 x 50 = 12000 cubic cms

Volume of Cube = Side3

=503 = 125000

As the volume of the cube is greater than that of the cuboid so it will require more material, and the cuboid will require less material

  1. A suitcase with measures 80 cm × 48 cm × 24 cm is to be covered with a tarpaulin cloth. How many metres of tarpaulin of width 96 cm is required to cover 100 such suitcases?

Answer: Surface Area of Cuboid = 2(lb + lh + bh)

= 2 (80 x 48 + 80 x 24 + 48 x 24)

= 2(3840 + 1920 + 1152)

= 2 x 6912 = 13824

Hence, Surface Area of 100 suitcases = 1382400 cm2    Required tarpaulin will have same area

  1. Find the side of a cube whose surface area is 600 cm2.

Answer: Surface Area = 6 x (side) 2

or, 600 = 6 x (side)2

or, (Side)2 = 100

or, Side = 10 cm

  1. Mr. Phiri painted the outside of the cabinet of measure 1 m × 2 m × 1.5 m. How much surface area did she cover if she painted all except the bottom of the cabinet?

Answer: Surface Area of Cabinet = 2(lb + lh + bh)

= 2(1 x 2 + 1 x 1.5 + 1.5 x 2)

= 2(2 + 1.5 + 3) = 2 x 6.5 = 13

Area of Bottom Surface = 1 x 2 = 2 m2

Hence, Area Covered by painting = 13-2 = 11m2

  1. Mr. Banda is painting the walls and ceiling of a cuboidal hall with length, breadth and height of 15 m, 10 m and 7 m respectively. From each can of paint 100 m² of area is painted. How many cans of paint will she need to paint the room?

Answer: Area of All walls, ceilings and floor = 2(lb + lh + bh)

= 2(15 x 10 + 15 x 7 + 10 x 7)

= 2(150 + 105 + 70)

= 2 x 325 = 650

Area of Floor = 15 x 10 = 150

Hence, Painted Area =650-150=500

As, one can of paint is enough for 100 m2

So, 500/100 = 5 cans are needed to paint the hall.

Alternate Method

Area of Walls of a Room = 2 x h x (l + b)

= 2 x 7 x (15 + 10)

= 14 x 25 = 350

Area of Roof = Area of Floor = 150

Total Area to be painted = 350+150=500

  1. Describe how the two figures given below are alike and how they are different. Which box has larger lateral surface area?

Answer:

Similarity: Their dimensions are equal

Difference: The figure on the left is cylindrical and that on the right is cuboidal.

It is clear that the cylinder is having a larger surface area.

  1. A closed cylindrical tank of radius 7 m and height 3 m is made from a sheet of metal. How much sheet of metal is required?
  1. The lateral surface area of a hollow cylinder is 4224 cm2. It is cut along its height and formed a rectangular sheet of width 33 cm. Find the perimeter of rectangular sheet?

Answer: Area of Rectangular Sheet = Surface Area of the Cylinder

Area of Rectangle = l x b

Or, l x b = 4224

l x 33 = 4224

  1. A road roller takes 750 complete revolutions to move once over to level a road. Find the area of the road if the diameter of a road roller is 84 cm and length is 1 m.

Answer: In one revolution the wheel of the roller will cover an area equal to its surface area.

  1. A company packages its milk powder in cylindrical container whose base has a diameter of 14 cm and height 20 cm. Company places a label around the surface of the container (as shown in the figure). If the label is placed 2 cm from top and bottom, what is the area of the label.

Answer: The cylindrical area covered by the label will have

height = 20-4 = 16 cms

Activity 1.      Given a cylindrical tank, in which situation will you find surface area and in which situation volume.

i.        To find how much it can hold.

ii.     Number of cement bags required to plaster it.

iii.   To find the number of smaller tanks that can be filled with water from it.

2.      Diameter of cylinder A is 7 cm, and the height is 14 cm. Diameter of cylinder B is 14 cm and height is 7 cm. Without doing any calculations can you suggest whose volume is greater? Verify it by finding the volume of both the cylinders. Check whether the cylinder with greater volume also has greater surface area?

3.      Find the height of a cuboid whose base area is 180 cm2 and volume is 900 cm3?

4.      A cuboid is of dimensions 60 cm × 54 cm × 30 cm. How many small cubes with side 6 cm can be placed in the given cuboid?

5.      Find the height of the cylinder whose volume is 1.54 m³ and diameter of the base is 140 cm ?6. A milk tank is in the form of cylinder whose radius is 1.5 m and length is 7 m. Find the quantity of milk in litres that can be stored in the tank?

6.      If each edge of a cube is doubled,

i.        how many times will its surface area increase?

ii.     how many times will its volume increase?

7.       Water is pouring into a cubiodal reservoir at the rate of 60 litres per minute. If the volume of reservoir is 108 m³, find the number of hours it will take to fill the reservoir.

Unit 6

Relations and Functions

Introduction

In this unit, you are going to deal with relations and functions. Under relation you will be expected to have an understanding of what relations are, clear explanations of DOMAIN and RANGE under relations, ways of presenting a function and type of relations.

Upon completion of this unit you will be able to;

Outcomes ·         Demonstrate a clear understanding of a relation and a function

·         Demonstrate skills of presenting a relation in different ways

·         Demonstrate skills in solving problems on functions in one variable.

Terminologies

Terminology Domain set where objects are drawn from
Range set of images
Relation rule which associates the elements of two sets
Mapping each element in the domain is paired with exactly one element in the range

                                                What is a relation?

A relation is a rule which associates the element of two sets

Example 1;

If  X = and Y =

The relation which is between elements from set X and elements from set Y

“is the factor of ”

  • 2 is a factor of 4
  • 3 is a factor of 9
  • 5 is a factor of 25

Alternatively we may come up with another relation of element of set X to element of set Y

  • 2 is the square root of 4
  • 3 is the square root of 9
  • 5 is the square root of 25

The relation of elements from set X to set Y

“is the square root of ”

You may also want to know the relation between element from set Y to elements from set X

  • 4 is the square of 2
  • 9 is the square of 3
  • 25 is the square of 5

The relation of elements from set Y to elements from set X    “is the square of”

Ways of presenting a relation

A relation can be presented in four ways:-

Using arrow diagram

Example1:  Present the relation from A to B by arrow diagram

The relation “is a factor of ”

From A =   to B=

 

Activity Now you may represent the relations below in form arrow diagram.

1.                The relation “ is provincial capital” from  X to Y

X =

Y=

Using sets of ordered pairs

Relations can be presented as a set of ordered pairs. The pairs are ordered in such a way that the first element of a pair comes from the domain and the second element from the Range.

Example1: represent the relation below as a set of ordered pairs.

The relation “is a factor of ” from

From A =    to B=

, , , , , , ,

Activity Now you may present the relation below as a set of ordered pairs.

The relation “Plus 4 is ” from C =   to D =

Types of relations

  • One to many   
  1. “Is a square of”
  2. Example:  of a one-to-many relations
  3. This is the kind of relation where there is a one-to-many relationship between elements of the domain and those of the range.
  • Many-to-oneExample 1: of a many-to-one relation 
  1. ‘is a square root of ’

Many to many                                 

Domain and range      

Now you are going to be exposed to new terminologies called domain and range.

Domain

If a relation associates elements of a set A to elements of a set B then, set A is called the domain.

Range

If a relation associates elements of a set A to elements of a set B then set B is called the range. State at least five (5) practical activities you would use to introduce each of the following concepts to a primary school class i.e. grade 6

Let’s now look at the examples of domain and range:

Relation A is a square-root of B

      A                                                    B

1

2

3

4

5

1

4

9

16

25

 

                                    Domain                                                           Range

Relation is a father from set F to set C

Liseli

Pumulo

Mbao

Mateyo

Mutundu

Tembo

Mwate

 F                                                            C

 

 

 

 

                  

Domain                                                                      Range

 

Function       

Under this section, you will be expected to cover the following items;

  • An understanding of  what a function is
  • Ways of presenting a function
  • Evaluating of function
  • Find the inverse of function in one variable
  • Evaluating of an inverse function.

What is a function?                                                                

A function is a mapping where there is only one image for each and every member of the domain

Ways of presenting a function                            

A function can be presented in four ways namely:-

  1. In form of arrow diagram
  1. As a functional notation
  1. Formular form
  1. In form of a set builder notation

 

Evaluating functions

We are now going to look at how a function can be evaluated

Example 1: if       f  (x) = 2x2 – x, evaluate the following:

  1. f (-3)          (ii)   f        (iii)   f
  2. Solution
  1.   f (-3) to evaluate this, subtract -3 wherever you see f (-3) = 2(-3)2-(-3)f (-3) = 18+3
  2. f (-3) = 11
  3. f (-3) = 2(9)+3
  4. meaning f (x) = 2x2-x

f   = 2 2  –

f   = 2 +

f  =  +

f  =

Given that   h (x) =  , evaluate

  1. h (-2)     (ii)  h     (iii)    h

Solution

:  h (-2)  =

=

=

h(-2)= -1

  1. h   =

h   =

                         h   =

  1.   h   =

h   =   /5

h   =   /5

h   =  X

h   =

Activity 1.      If f(x) =  , find

(i)  f (3)      (ii)    f (-2)   (iii)   f

2.      If g(x) =

(i)   g(1)     (ii) g(-2)     (iii)  g

Now you can attempt to evaluate the following on your own.

Problems on functions leading to simple linear equations

Since you have acquired the skill of evaluating functions, then you can expose yourself to problems on functions which lead to simple Linear equations.

Example1: If  f(x) = ax + 2, Find the valuable x with 3 and equate the obtained function to -4.

f(x) = ax + 2

f(3) = a(3) + 2 = 4

3a + 2 = 4

3a = -4 – 2

  =

a = -2

Example 2:

If   g(x)  =  3bx – 2, find the value of b, given that g(1) = 2

f(1) = 3b (1) – 2 = 2

3b – 2 = 2

3b = 2  +  2

=

b =

Problems on linear functions leading to simultaneous equations

If        f (x) = ax + b

f (1) = a (1) + b

f (1) = a+ b = 6

a + b = 6 (i)

f (x) = ax + b

f ( 2) = a (2) + b

f (2) = -2a + b = 3

2a + b = 3 – eq (ii)

Solving two simultaneous equations

a + b = 6

  • – 2a + b = 3            3a = 3  a + b = 6                      (a = 1)                        b = 6 – 1a = 1 and b = 5
  •                         b = 5
  • 1 + b = 6
  •    a = 1
  •             3      3

Now attempt the following problems

Activity 1.      If f (x) = 2ax + b, where a and b are constant and if

F (-1) = 2, f (-2) = 3

Find the value of a and b

2.      If g (k) = 3ax + 2b, where a and b are  constants and if

F (-2) = 1 and f(3) = -1 find the value of a and b.

(i)                 If f(x) = ax + 4, find the value of a if f(1) = 6

(ii)              Given that f(x) = and if f(-2) = 3, find the value of C?

(iii)            Given that f(x) =

f(1) = -12?

 

Activity State at least five (5) practical activities you would use to introduce each of the following concepts to a primary school class i.e. grade 6

Inverse of a linear function

Now you will be introduced to finding the inverse of a linear function

Example1: if f(x) = 2x +5, find f-1(x)

Begin by equating the function to Y

Y = 2x + 5

Then you can solve for a or make x the subject of the formula

Y – 5 = 2x

=

= x

Then replace/substitute y with x and the expected solution will be

f-1(x) =

Example2: Given that f(x) = 5x -3 , find  f-1 (x)

y = 5x – 3

=

= x

f-1(x) =

Example3:   If  f(x) =   , find    f-1(x)  ?

y =                               cross multiply then solve for x

3y = 5x – 2

=

= x

Now attempt the following problems

Activity (i)                 If  f(x)  =    , find f-1(x)

(ii)              Given that g(x) = 3x – 5, find g-1(x)

(iii)            Given that h(x) =   , find h-1(x)

Problems which require factorisation

Sometimes you may be required to use the knowledge of factorization to find the inverse of a given function. Let us look at the examples given below.

Example1:   If    f(x)  =   ,   find    f-1(x)

Solution

Y =           Cross Multiply

5xy  =  3x – 2          make sure that all the coefficients carrying are put on

One side

5xy – 3x = -2

=       Then factorize the variable X

X  =

f-1(x) =

Example2: Given that  g(x)  =  ,  find the g-1(x)

solution

=

3yx = 4x – 2

3yx – 4x = -2

=

X =

g-1(x) =

Activity Find the inverse of the following functions

(i)              h(x) =      (ii)  f(x)  =      (iii)   g(x) =                       (iv) p(x) =

Evaluating inverse function

Example1: Given that   f(x) = 3x – 2

Evaluate     f -1(4)

Solution

Y = 3x – 2

=

X  =

f-1(x) =

f-1(4) =

=

f-1(4) = 2

Example 2

If g(x) = , find g-1(-2)

Solution

g(x) =

y =

5y = 3x – 2

=

X =

g-1(x) =

g-1(-2) =

=

g-1(-2) =

Example 3

M(x) = , find M-1(3)

Solution

M(x) =

Y =

Y(2x-1) = 5x

2xy – y = 5x

=

X =

M-1(x) =

M-1(3) =   =  = 3

 

Activity 1.      Given that    f(x) =  , evaluate  f-1(3)

2.      If g(x) =  , evaluate  g-1

3.      If P(x) = 3x – 7, Evaluate   P-1

 

 


 

Unit 7

Pythagoras Theorem

Introduction

 

Under this unit, we will discuss the Pythagoras Theorem which applies to right angled triangle.

 

Outcomes

After working through this unit, you will be able to:

Outcomes i)                    Identify objects in real life situation where the theorem is applied.

ii)                  Derive the theorem with the help of the right-angled triangle.

iii)                Apply  the theorem to calculate the sides of  the right-angled triangle

Terminologies

Terminology Right Angled Triangle is a triangle whose one of its angles is a right angle (90degrees)
Hypotenuse Is the side of the Right angled triangle opposite the right angle .
Adjacent Is side that makes an acute angle with the hypotenuse.
Opposite  side  Is side opposite the acute angle in a right-angled triangle.

Let us now remind each other on the concepts of squares and square roots as it relates to the right-angled triangle.

Squares

Definition: The square of a number is the product we get after we have multiplied the number by itself.

For Example:

  1. The square of 7 is 7×7 =   72 = 49, thus 49 is the square of 7.
  2. The square of 3 is 3×3 = 32 = 9
  3. Thus 9 is the square of 3.
  4. The square of  P is p x p = p2
  5. You can try the following activity:
  6. P2 is the square of p.
Activity 1.      Find the square of

(a)   4     (c)  t

(b)   5     (d) 6

2.      Write the squares of numbers  between 7 and 12 inclusive

Solutions 

  1. (a) 42= 4 x 4 = 16(c)  txt = t2

(b) 52 = 5 x 5  =  25   (d)  62 = 6 x 6 = 36

  1. Square of 7 is :.

7 2= 7 x 7 = 49,

Square of 8 is:

8 2 = 8 x 8 = 64,

Square of 9 is:

92 = 0 x 0 = 81

Square of 10 is:

102 = 10 x 10 = 100

Square of 11 is:

112=11 x 11 = 121

Square of 12 is:

122 = 12 x 12 = 144.

 

 

                 SQUARE ROOTS

The Square of 6 is 36. The number 6 is called square root. Also the square of t is t2.Thus t is called the square root.  Definition – The square root denoted by   is a number whose square is equal is to the given number. In other words, it is a number which you can multiply by it to get the given number.  For example

 

The square root of:

  1. 121
  2.  =
  3.  144
  4. =    =12
  5.  M2

=  = m

  1. (rt)2
  2. ­ =rt

        

You can now try the following activity:

Activity    Find the square root of the following:

(a) 81

(b) 169

(c)102 – 62

Solution

  1. 169 = 13
  2. 102– 62= 64  
  3.  
  4.  
  5. = 8
  6. =100-36

Deriving and stating the Theorem

Let us now look at the following figure

 

Q
5cm
4cm
A
5cm
P
3cm
C
4cm
R
B

In triangle ABC, AB= 3cm, BC= 4cm and AC= 5cm as shown in the diagram above. On each sides of the triangle ABC squares have been drawn represented by the letters P, Q and R.

Let us now find the areas of the following squares:

  • Area of P  =  5cm.x 5cm=25cm2
  • Area of Q =  3cm x 3cm = 9cm2
  • Area of R = 4cm x 4cm = 16cm2

Can you see any connection concerning the areas of the squares above?

You will notice that:

Area of P = area of Q + area of R.

25cm2 =  9cm2 + 16cm2

Or 52cm 2 = 32cm2 + 42cm2

Your will notice that the area of the square on the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the areas of the squares on the adjacent sides. Since :

AC2 =AB2 + BC2  or  AB2 + BC2 = AC2

We have shown that it is true that in a right angled triangle, the sum of the squares on the adjacent sides is equal to the square on the hypotenuse in all cases. This represents the Theorem of Pythagoras.

Theorem

In the right –angled triangle, the square on the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares on the adjacent sides.  That is, in the following figures:

c
b

1.

a

c2 =a2   + b2

 

m

2.

c
n

 

 

 

m2 = c2 + n2

r
s

3.

t

t2   = r2 + s2

4.

z
x
y

z2 = x2+y2

Let us try the activity below now:

Activity In each triangle below, write or state the theorem (without solving)

a
c
z
3
k

Solutions

  1. a2 = b2+c2
  2. X2 = y2+z2
  3. K2 = 42 +32

Without drawing squares on each side, using the theorem as a2 = b2 + c2, where a is the hypotenuse while b and c are adjacent sides, we can now find the missing sides. For example

Find the length of x in each triangle

3                         x                                            (b)                                                                           x

12                   15                                                                10

Solutions

  1. The missing sides are the hypotenuse.X2= 9+ 16X =
  2. X =    5cm
  3. X2 = 25
  4. X2 = 32 + 42
  5. The missing side is the adjacent.225 = 144 + x2              81= x2          9km = x
  6.     = x
  7. 225 – 144 = x2
  8. 152 = 122 + x 2
  9. The missing side is the adjacent.

102 = 62+ x2

100 = 36 + x2

100 – 36 = x2

64= x2

= x

8= x

We have situations when two or more right-angled triangle can be combined. In this case, we can still use the Pythagoras theorem to find the missing sides as shown below.

  1. Using Pythagoras theorem, find x then y.
    9cm
    x
    y
    39cm
    12cm

Finding x we have:

122 + 92 = x2

144 + 81 + x2                                                   

225 = x2

= x

15 = x

Finding y now, we have

x2+  y2 = 39

We have just found the value for x. So substituting x we have

152  + y2 =392

225 +  y2= 1521

y2 = 1521 – 225

y2 = 1296

y =

y = 36

Thus x = 15 and y = 36

Activity

You can now try the following.

Activity 1.      Find  the missing side
2.      From the figure below, calculate the length of   x.
3.      Calculate the length of slide x:

Unit summary

Summary In this unit you learned that the square of a number is the product we get after we have multiplied the number by itself. For example, 52= 25. Thus, 25 is the square of 5. The square root of a particular number is the number which gives the square. For example,  = 7. That is 7 is the square root of 49. The Pythagoras theorem states that, in the right angled triangle, the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the two other side (adjacent sides)

Assessment

Assessment 1.        Calculate the lettered sides:-
2.               Find the length of the side of this rhombus whose diagonals are of lengths 24cm and 10cm.
3.               ABCDEF is a right Prism with a right-angled triangle as a cross- section as shown below.  ABCD is horizontal.  Calculate the slope BF, given that AB = 6cm, BC = 4CM and CF = 2cm.

4.               The figure below shows two right-angled triangles ABD  and CDB such that AD = 13cm, AB = 12cm and BC = 3cm.  Find

(i)                 BD

(ii)

D
B
A

CD

UNIT

Trigonometry

Introduction

In the previous unit, you learnt how to solve right angled triangles using the Pythagoras theorem. In this unit, you will learn to solve right angled triangles using trigonometry and appreciate the relationship that exists between angles and sides in a right triangle.

Outcomes

Upon completion of this unit you will be able to:

Outcomes ·         Form trigonometric ratios

·         Apply trigonometric ratios to right angled triangles

·         Apply trigonometric ratios to real life situations

Terminologies

Terminology Ratio – A quotient , where a and b are numbers.
Hypotenuse Longest side closing the right angle.
Adjacent side (Neighboring)-Is a line making an acute angle with the hypotenuse
Sine of an angle  Is the ratio of the opposite side to the hypotenuse.
Cosine of an angle – Is the ratio of the adjacent side to the hypotenuse.
Tangent of an angle It is the ratio of the opposite side to the adjacent side

Historical background

The word trigonometry is derived from the two Greek words meaning “triangle measurement”. Trigonometry had its origins in the finding of distances and angles which is still one of the main purposes of elementary trigonometry.

Trigonometry is therefore the study of the relationship between the angles and sides of a triangle. Because of this relationship, it is applied in the field of science and engineering.

 

.

Angle of 90o

It is a habit, in the study of trigonometry to let the capital letters A, B and C represent the angles of a triangle and the middle letter C being the right angle (90o). The sides of a triangle are denoted by the lower case (small letters), a, b and c in such a manner that each angle and the side opposite it use the same letter.

                                             THE RIGHT ANGLED TRIANGLE

 

 

 

                                The Trigonometric Ratios

In the triangle above,

  1. i) Sine of the angle A, written as sin A = a/c
  2. ii) Cosine of an angle A, written as Cos A = b/c

iii) Tangent of an angle A, written as Tan A = a/ b

These three ratios, sine, cosine and tangent are called the principal trigonometric ratios and are the only ones we are considering in this unit.

So considering the triangle above,

  1. Sin A   ;    SOH
  • Cos A  ;    CAH 
  1. Tan A ;   TOA

Tangent is therefore the ratio of sine to cosine.

Let’s now coin an aid to memory using the first letters from each word of the equation,

SOH, CAH, TOA. This aid is only applied to right angled triangles. Calculating the Length of a Side or Size of an Angle in a Right-Angled Triangle. To calculate the length of a side of a right-angled triangle when we know the two others, we can use the Pythagorean Theorem. If we only know one side and an acute angle, we can use the sine, cosine, or tangent of this angle.

  1. Calculating the length of a side

We want to calculate the length of a side of a right-angled triangle when we know the length of one other side and the size of one of its acute angles. To do so, we need to characterize the known side and the unknown side with respect to the known angle. This will tell us which trigonometric ratio we need to use: the sine, cosine, or tangent.

Here is an example:

Problem: Triangle IJK is a right-angled triangle where I is the right angle, IK = 3 cm and J = 26°. We want to calculate KJ and IJ to the nearest 0.01 cm.

Solution: We know IK, which is the length of the side opposite to J, and we are looking for KJ, which is the length of the hypotenuse of the triangle; so we can use the sine of J. In general, in a right-angled triangle, the sine of an acute angle is equal to the ratio

.

We can write: sin , so sin 26° =  , and so KJ =

.

When using a calculator, we have: KJ   6.84 cm.

To calculate IJ: We know IK, which is the length of the side opposite to J, and we are looking for IJ, which is the length of the side adjacent to J; so we can use the tangent of J. In general, in a right-angled triangle, the

tangent of an acute angle is equal to the ratio .

We can write: tan  , so tan 26° =  , and so IJ =  .

When using a calculator: IJ   6.15 cm.

  1. Calculating an angle

We want to calculate the size of an angle of a right-angled triangle when we know the lengths of two of the sides. To do this, we need to characterize the two known sides in relation to the angle we want to calculate; this will tell us which trigonometric ratio we will need to use (the sine, the cosine, or the tangent).

Here is an example:

 

Problem: Triangle NRV is a right-angled triangle where R is a right angle, RV = 7 m, and NV = 9 m.

We want to calculate the size of ÐV to the nearest 0.1°.

Solution: RV is the length of the adjacent side to ÐV, and NV is the length of the hypotenuse of the triangle; so we can use the cosine of ÐV. In general, in a right-angled triangle, the cosine of an acute angle is equal to the ratio .

We can write cos  , so cos and so, using a calculator, we

find that ÐV 38.9°. Example: Using the three triangles below, give the sine, cosine and tangent of each acute angle in terms of the sides of the right angled triangle.

Solutions; in triangle DEF,we identify the acute angles as D AND F

Sin D

Cos D

Tan D

In triangle RST, we identify the acute angles as S and T.

Sin S  =0.6

Cos S  =0.8

Tan S  =0.75

Now find the ratios for the remaining triangle.

             Activity Using the triangle RST above, find the SINE, COSINE and TANGENT of an angle T.

What is your observation on sin T and Cos T?


Trigonometric ratios of 300, 45o and 600

Trigonometric ratios of the angles above are frequently needed and may be obtained from the triangles below.

In thee triangle above, it is an equilateral triangle with a height of h.The sides of the triangle are 2 units each and by Pythagoras theorem, we can calculate h.

22 = h2 + 12

h2 + 12 = 4

h2 = 4 – 1

h2 = 3

h = √3.

So from the triangle, we can form trigonometric al ratios

  • Sin 30o =
  • Cos30o
  • Tan30o
             Activity Find the ratios of sin60o, cos 60o and tan 60o

Now, let’s consider another triangle, this time a right angled isosceles with two sides of the length 1 unit.

theorem, h =

Let us now calculate the values sin 45o, Cos 45o and tan 45o respectively.

  • Sin 45o =
  • Cos 45o
  • Tan 45o

The above values of sine, cosine and tangent can also be found using a scientific calculator.

Application

Finding distances using trigonometric ratios. To find distances or length of sides, the following hints are useful:

  • Draw a fairly accurate figure
  • Place the known values on the figure
  • Represent by a letter the quantity to be found
  • Solve the equation and possibly check if it makes sense

Example; A Ladder leans against a wall and makes an angle of 60o with the ground. If the ladder is 20.6metrs long, at what height of the wall does it touch?

Solution

We begin by making a sketch.

Let height of wall be h, then the ladder is our hypotenuse and ground is our adjacent side where as the wall is our opposite side since it closes the angle 60o.

Let l be ladder, by using sine SOH,

  • Sin 60o =
  • Sin 60o
  • Recall that  sin 60o =
  • Finding cross products,
  • Dividing both sides of the equation by 2 to obtain h,
  • therefore the wall is 17.8 m

Example. A Zesco pole is 8m tall. A supporting wire from the top of the pole to the ground is laid vertically at an angle of 30o with the pole. Find the length of the wire.

Solution

We begin by making a sketch of this information.

We are given the length of the pole 8 meters and an angle of 30o and we find the hypotenuse

Cos 30o =

Recall that

Cos 30o =

  • W
  • W
  • WTherefore, the length of wire is 9.2 meters

If we take an acute angle of a right-angled triangle, then the relationship between its adjacent side and the hypotenuse is constant, whatever the size of the acute angle. This is called the cosine of the angle. But how is it useful?

Properties

The cosine of an acute angle falls between zero and one (inclusively) because the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle is the longest of its three sides.

Below are some specific values:

 Applications

Finding lengths

Problem: RST is a triangle with a right angle at R. Lengths are in centimeters. ST = 7 cm and S = 35°. We want to find approximate values for both SR and RT rounded to 0.1 cm.

Solution: Triangle RST has a right angle at R, so we can write: . Substitute: . Multiply both sides by 7 and you have: .

Using a scientific calculator:  Ensure that the calculator is in degree mode; enter: 7   35    (or 7    35  ). The screen reads 5.73… Rounding to 0.1 cm, [SR] is 5.7 cm long.

To find RT, we could use the Pythagorean Theorem. But it would be an approximation, as we have only the approximate value of SR. You should also find the size of T. Actually, S and T are complementary, so T = 90° – 35° = 55°. Likewise , or . Rounding to 0.1 cm, [RT] is 4.0 cm long. (You can leave the zero to show that the result is given to one decimal place.)

Finding angles

Problem: FGH is a triangle with a right angle at G. Lengths is in centimeters. FG = 8 cm and FH = 11 cm. We want to find the size of F (rounded to 0.1°).

Solution: FGH has a right angle at G, so we can write . Substitute . We need to find the size of the angle given its cosine. Using a scientific calculator: ensure that the calculator is in degree mode;
enter: (8  11)      (or    (8   11) ).
The screen reads 43.34… Rounding to 0.1°, F is 43.3°.

 

Notes: On some calculators, the key looks like this: ; on other calculators the and keys (or and  ) are replaced by this single key: .

4See Richard Freeman’s handbook, section 4.1.3: Components that form the three-part structure (Stage 3: Remind the learners …).

Unit summary

Summary In this unit you learned  that in any right angled triangle,

·         Sine of an angle is the ratio of the opposite side to the hypotenuse

·         Cosine of an angle is the ratio of the adjacent side to the hypotenuse

·         Tangent of an angle is the ratio of the opposite side to the adjacent side

Aid to memory, SOH CAH TOA

Assessment

If you do not require an assessment in this unit, follow the instructions “Removing a unit assessment” in the user guide to delete it.

Assessment

1.      Why should trigonometry be taught as part of mathematics in schools?

2.      In the diagram above, find the length of the wire and the distance pole from the supporter on the ground.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unit

Statistics

Introduction

We proceed by looking at the following concepts

Outcomes

Outcomes §  Discuss statistics, including definitions. Characteristics and importance.

§  Solve problems on statistics.

§  Draw and interpret histograms perform calculations of measures of central tendency.

§  Design frequency tables.

Terminologies

Terminology Mean Value each items in the distribution would have if all the values were shared equally among all the items.
Mode Most frequently occurring value in a distribution
Median Value of the item in the middle of a distribution

Frequency distribution table for grouped data

In any frequency distribution, the range of the observations is the difference between the highest and the lowest observation. When we have a large number of data, we require that we group such data into classes. It is normally convenient to choose a reasonable number of classes – presumably 6 to 9 classes.

The number of classes is determined by class width. Consider the following marks scored by a grade 7 class in a Mathematics test.

60  55  84  52  58  55  71

60  72  58  54  68  66  63

39  34  75  22  34  24  78

49  75  68  74  37  30  58

68  55  80  65  56  49  55

64  37  53  76  47.

We see that the range is 84 – 22 = 62.

To group this data into appropriate class intervals that will be convenient, we divide 62 by 10 to give us 6.2 which are approximately 7 class intervals. The next step to consider when recording this data in a frequency table is the class width.

This is the point at which to begin the lower class interval. In this case, our first class interval would be from 20 – 29 and so on up to the last class interval.

The following is the frequency table for the Mathematics test of 40 grade 7 pupils.

Class Interval Tally Mark Frequency
20 -29 І І 2
30 – 39 І І І І І 6
40 – 49 І І І 3
50 – 59 І І І І   І І І І   І 11
60 – 69 І І І І  І І І І 9
70 – 79 І І І І   І І 7
80 -89 І І 2
TOTAL 40

Class frequency is the number of individuals in each class. The sum of class frequency should tally with the number of learners who wrote the test.

Frequency distribution table of grouped data

We refer you to example in above in which we observe the class boundaries as the numbers 20, 29, 30, 39, 40, 49, up to 89. These numbers separate class intervals. Class limit is the lowest value that is supposed to be included in any class interval of 20 – 29.

The lower class limit is 19.5 and the upper class limit is 29.5. In class interval of 80 – 89, the lower class limit is 79.5 and the upper class limit is 89.5. In terms of lower and upper limits, the following table would represent the data in example 1.4 above.

Class interval Frequency
19.5 – 29.5 2
29.5 – 39.5 6
39.5 – 49.5 3
49.5 – 59.5 11
59.5 – 68.5 9
69.5 – 79.5 7
79.5 – 89.5 2
TOTAL 40

We observe that the mark 59.5 will be in the 5th class interval. This is because when rounded off to nearest whole number, the value becomes 60 and not 59, thus for any value x in the fifth class interval, we can write 49.5 < x < 59.5.

Class Interval Mark

This is the mark that lies between the lower and upper limits of a class interval. It is obtained by averaging the limits i.e. in class interval 49.5 and 59.5; class interval mark will be 54.5.

Histograms

When displaying classified data, we tend to use commonly a histogram. It is more like a bar graph without spaces because of the continuity of the class intervals.

The class intervals are represented on the horizontal axis and the frequency on vertical axis. The area of each rectangle is proportional to the number of individuals in the corresponding class intervals.

Drawing a histogram

  1. Use the following information to draw histogram.
Distance in km Frequency
4 to 8 3
9 to 13 12
14 to 18 24
19 to 29 36
24 to 28 25
29 to 33 10

We should bear in mind that a histogram does not have gaps between the values. To fill the gaps in the information, lower and upper class interval limits have to be found for each class interval.

Class interval limit Frequency
3.5 – 8.5 3
8.5 – 13.5 12
13.5 – 18.5 24
18.5 – 23.5 36
23.5 – 28.5 25
28.5 – 33.5 10

The information is then drawn on a graph or on squared paper as shown.

Activity 1.      Draw a histogram using the following information showing masses of stones collected by learners around the school compound.

Mass in kg No. of  learners
0-2.5 20
2.5 – 6.5 56
6.5 – 11.5 80
11.5 – 16.5 65
16.5 – 22.5 40
22.5- 28.5 15

2.      Draw the Histogram for the following frequency distribution.

 

Class interval 2 – 6 7 – 11 12 – 16 17- 21 22 – 26 27 – 31
frequency 8 15 27 31 13 9

 

Frequency polygon

When we join mid-points of the group class intervals using a straight line we form a frequency polygon. Frequency polygon must be plotted at each end at the zero mark for it to be complete. It may also be obtained from a histogram by making dots at the mid –point of each rectangle. The points are then joined with the straight lines to form the frequency polygon as shown.

Example

Draw a frequency polygon from the information given below;

Class Mid-point(x) Frequency
3.5 –   8.5 6 3
8.5 – 13.5 11 12
13.5 – 18.5 16 24
18.5- 23.5 21 36
23.5-28.5 26 25
28.5-33.5 31 10

45

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

6     11   16    21   26    31   36

Class Mark (mid. point)

Activity The following table gives the results of an aptitude test for 150 applicants in an interview.

Draw  (a) A histogram.

(b)  A frequency polygon on the same graph.

                    

Measures of central tendency for grouped data

The Mean

To find the mean in a grouped data,

  1. Calculate the mid-mark or the mid-point of the class i.e x of each class interval as shown x = (upper class limit + lower class limit)
  2.                                        2
  3. Use the class mid-mark to find the mean.                         ∑f
  4. Mean =∑fx

Example

The table below shows the heights in metres of certain buildings;

Class Mid-mark(x) Frequency(f) fx
5- 9 7 3 21
10-14 12 8 96
15-19 17 5 85
20-24 22 4 88
∑f = 20 ∑xf = 290

We find the mean height.

Mean = ∑fx/∑f

= 290/20

= 14.5m

1.9.2: The median.

We view median as the average of two middle scores. To find the median for grouped data, the following aspects must be considered:

  • Write each class interval in terms of class interval limits or boundaries
  • Calculate the cumulative frequencies of the distribution.
  • Decide on the class interval of the median class using the cumulative frequencies.
  • Identify the cumulative frequency up to just before the median class. Use it to decide how many more values from the median class need to be counted in order to arrive at the median value.
  • Identify the fraction of the number of values in the median class. This is the proportion of the median interval that will be added to the lower class interval limit/boundary of the median in order to get the median.Therefore: The following is the frequency distribution of weights, to the nearest kg, of 50 men. Find the median weight.
  • Example
  • Median = Lower class boundary + How many more values/No. of values in median class x Median interval.
Class interval Frequency Cumulative Frequency
50 – 54 2 2
55 – 59 4 6
60 – 64 10 16
65 – 69 5 21
70 – 74 15 36
75 – 79 14 50

The median is the mean obtained by 25th and 26th men. The median weight lies between 70 – 74 classes. Up to 69.5, there are 21 men. To get to the 25th man, we need 4 more men from the next class i.e. 4 out of 15 men. The interval 70 – 74 has 5kg evenly distributed among 15 men in that class.

The weight for the 25th men = 69.5 + 4/15 x 5

= 69.5 + 1.33

= 70.83

The weight of the 26th men = 69.5 + 25/25 x 5

= 74.5

Median =

= 72.665kg

= 72.67kg

The mode

For grouped data, the class interval with the highest frequency is called the modal class and its frequency is referred to as modal frequency.

Example

Weights Frequency
5 – 9 3
10 – 14 5
15 – 19 18
20 – 24 25
25 – 29 11
30 – 34 6

From the table above, 20 – 24 is the modal class and 25 is the modal frequency.

Measures of Spread

The range

The range is the difference between the greatest and the least item in a distribution (set of data). The range is not a good measure of dispersion since it is based on the extreme observation of the group.

Interpercentile range

This is the range between the 10th percentile and the 90th percentile.

The 10 – 90 percentile range does not depend on the extreme values and it makes use of the whole group of observations, but still it is a weak measure of spread.

Quartile Deviation

This is a measure of spread between the quartiles.  It is also called semi-quartile range.

Semi-quartile range =

Unit summary

Summary In this unit you learned that

·         Statistics is useful in our daily life

·         It has an instrumental role in other disciplines

·         It is important in developing critical reasoning

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assessment

Assessment 1.      The table below shows the lengths in cm of 40 sticks.

Lengths (cm) Frequency
60 – 64 8
65 – 69 3
70 – 74 18
74 – 79 6
80 – 84 5

Find:

(a)   The modal class

(b)   The median

(c)    The mean

2.      A class has 20 learners. Below are their weights in kgs.

41  41  55  43  40

41  50  40  43  42

51  40  49  49  50

53  40  52  44  49

(a)   Draw a grouped frequency table.

(b)   From the table find:

(i)              The mean

(ii)           The median

(iii)         The modal class

3.      In a botanical experiment, the lengths of 100 leaves from a certain species of plant were measured and the frequencies tabulated as follows.

Height of leaf (mm ) Frequency
20 – 24 1
25 – 29 5
30 – 34 10
35 – 39 19
40 – 44 25
45 – 49 21
50 – 54 15
55 – 59 3
60 – 64 1

Construct a histogram to show the frequency distribution and state the mode.

4.      The diameters of 40 disks were measured and the following results (in cm) were obtained.

Draw a frequency table and then draw a histogram to represent the frequency distribution.

5.      Twenty learners in a class measured their weights and recorded them to the nearest kilograms as follows

(a)   Organize the data using a frequency distribution table.

(b)   Use the table in (a) above to:

(i)                 Determine the mode.

(ii)              Calculate the mean.

(iii)            Calculate the mean.       

 

 

15.03 13.01 15.02 15.01 15.03
14.00 14.97 16.00 15.01 14.04
14.97 14.99 14.04 16.01 15.03
15.05 15.05 14.98 15.99 14.98
16.00 15.03 16.00 14.00 13.01
14.97 14.00 13.98 14.97 14.00
16.01 13.98 14.00 15.03 16.01
15.97 14.02 15.03 13.98 15.03

THE CONDITION OF ALBINOS AND THEIR RIGHT TO LIFE-Mwanza Matthews

mwanza      For many centuries,  African populations were not aware of the cause of albinism, as health science on the continent was not sufficiently developed to provide the necessary biomedical information. African cultures, beliefs and superstitions reinforced discrimination against people with albinism leading to: the violation of their rights to life, health, education, work and other things like rituals. For instance, midwifes or nurses might abandon a black woman who is  giving birth to a white‐skinned child or an ‘albino’. Hence the phenomenon of albinism raises a number of issues such as killing down of Albinos for ritual purposes. Therefore, this academic piece of paper will explain the condition of albinos based on genetics knowledge and the paper will also comment on Albinos’ right to life.

Melbourne Sydney, (1991). The science of genetics provides exact information on albinism: ‘Albinism consists of a group of genetic disorders of the melanin pigmenting system which occurs throughout the animal kingdom from insects, fish and birds right up to human beings’.  In other words, albinism does not exist only in human beings, but in all animals. (Indeed, albinism can also occur in plants due to a lack of chlorophyll.) A very important part of this definition is that albinism exists in all parts of the world, and in all life forms. It certainly does not exist only in Zambia or rather in Africa; all continents have a population of people with albinism. But the most popular African country which has been reported with the highest number of killing Albinos for ritual purpose is Tanzania.

Albinism is characterized by an absence of, or decrease in, melanin, which in the human varieties of albinism takes two forms: (i) occulocutaneous albinism and (ii) ocular albinism. The first form (which is by far the commoner) manifests as a lack of pigmentation in the skin, hair and eyes. In ocular albinism the loss of melanin is limited to the eyes, while skin pigmentation is normal. As is commonly known, pigmentation naturally differs between human beings, rendering some people darker‐skinned, and others fairer, depending on their melanin levels. Thus, low levels of melanin cause an absence of pigmentation and may result in a child being born with albinism. ‐ http/www.hst.org.za/news/southern Africa(12/04/1999)

 

In addition, Robert A, (1991:291). States that: “The human body’s production of melanin is governed by many factors, including pigmentation genes, hormones and ultra‐violet radiation (UVR). When the action of genes and hormones is not in balance an individual’s melanin production can be completely or partly disrupted, causing the person to have little or no pigment in the skin, hair or eyes; in other words to become an albino”.
Generally, the lack of pigmentation affects the skin, hair and eyes. Hair will look reddish or yellow, and the skin will lack colour, tending to white. The skin burns easily on exposure to the sun, with a high risk of skin cancer.

Moreover, the nature of albinism means that all those with the condition have visual problems. There is hypopigmentation of the iris choroid and retina, as well as mal‐ development of the fovea (a part of the retina that mediates central vision).

  1. Nyoroh, P. Mbalu and J. Kiburi.(2006:174). Add to the fact that, “Albinism is due to a recessive gene, which leads to lack of synthesis of the dark skin pigment called melanin.” The person has light skin, white hair and pink eyes. The individual is called an albino. As such, the appropriate enzyme necessary for melanin synthesis is not made. Thus, lacking black/normal colour in the skin.

Unfortunately, it has been noticed that people with albinism are being hunted and killed for ritual purposes more especially in Tanzania. As a result, many people with albinism are living in abject fear, according to http://internationalredcross.com(30/02/1978).statement cited by the Associated Press. “Some no longer dare to go outside, and children with albinism have stopped attending school.” For instance, Albinos in Tanzania are at an increased risk. Some of the albinos almost every year are being kidnapped, dismembered and turned over to witch doctors. Therefore, this gives an impression that albinos are being tormented or rather killed specifically for ritual purposes.
A complete set of body parts from an albino, including “all four limbs, genitals, ears, tongue and nose,” can bring in up to $75,000 on the black market, according to a report by the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. (2009), for years, superstitions have incited ritual attacks against albinos. Witch doctors use their body parts in potions to bring good fortune to those who are willing to pay for it.  “Some even believe that the witchcraft ritual is more powerful if the victim screams during the amputation, so body parts are often cut from live victims, especially children,” the report said.

The use of children is likely linked to the pursuit of innocence which it is believed, enhances the potency of the witchcraft ritual. Moreover, children are more vulnerable to attacks as they are easy to find and capture and do not have the physical strength to fend off attackers.

However, despite of this awe situation, albinos are people like others and they also deserve to enjoy life. Therefore, they should not be intimidated and discriminated by anyone whether in the society or anywhere else.

Moreover, People with albinism are human beings and are entitled to enjoy the same human rights as everyone else: for our purposes, the rights to life, health, education, work, and equal opportunities are especially important. These human rights are set out in many international covenants which are in force in many African countries, such as the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC), and the African Charter. The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. (2009).

In addition, they qualify as disabled persons and are consequently entitled to enjoy the specific rights and considerations mentioned in the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD). Article 10 of this convention reads: ‘States Parties reaffirm that every human being has the inherent right to life and shall take all necessary measures to ensure its effective enjoyment by persons with disabilities on an equal basis with others.
In a religious context, every human being is considered sacred. But the right to life means more than just not being murdered; it includes the right to a decent life, the right to have some freedom in relation to the manner in which one lives one’s life, the right to be treated equally in relation to those life choices, and so on.

However, people with albinism do not enjoy the right to life in some parts of Africa. For instance, in East Africa, specifically in Tanzania they are not free to live in rural areas because of regular attacks on them (often for their body parts) and because of the trafficking of children with albinism. This situation constitutes a violation of the right to life of albinos mentioned in the above; and it clearly offends against article 10 of the UNCRPD, set out above.

In general, African cultures still rely on beliefs and superstitions to make sense of the condition of albinism. But this situation differs from one part of Africa to another. While in some

parts the rate of acceptance seems to improve, in other parts the situation is critical, as in East Africa, where discrimination and rejection of people with albinism have escalated for the past years. Thus, there is an urgent need for African governments, regional organizations, and NGOs to act to end prejudice and discrimination against people with albinism in Africa.

However, the end of prejudice and discrimination must start in the families of people with this condition. But it is equally important that Zambian or African states commit to ending discrimination as part of their international obligations. Hence, in order to enhance albinos’ lives

Families should be given accurate information on the condition of albinism from professionals and family members should be encouraged to join non‐governmental organizations dealing with the issue of albinism, in order to educate and advocate for the rights of children with the condition of albinism. On the part of government, Zambian government or rather African governments should

Recognize all forms of disabilities, raise awareness of albinism through social media, for example, ZNBC. Promote the visibility of people with albinism in the public administration, so as to reduce prejudice and discrimination, provide sunscreen and spectacles to those with the condition, and assistive devices to albino learners.

Churches have played an important role during decolonization and apartheid in Africa. Today, they still have the moral authority to educate the community at large. Therefore, churches should work to end the beliefs and superstitions mentioned above. By faith, all people are children of God, and also by creation, conservation and by redemption. All people are created by God and all that God made is good (Genesis 1). Churches should promote the principle of love highlighted in Jesus’ teaching, “Love God and love your neighbour” (Matt 5; 11).

To conclude what has been discussed above. Albinism is caused by the absence of a special pigment called melanin. On the other hand, an understanding of albinism is crucial if people are to end prejudice and discrimination. This can become possible through the involvement of all stakeholders –government, regional organizations, NGOs, schools, churches and families. The promotion and protection of the rights of people with albinism must be carried out in a way that takes account of African cultures.


 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

  1. D. Nyoroh, P. Mbalu and J. Kiburi.(2006). Golden Tips – Biology. Nairobi: maraca publishers LTD

 

  1. http/www.hst.org.za/news/southern Africa(12/04/1999)
  1. Melbourne, Sydney, (1991) Biological Perspectives on Human Pigmentation, New York: Cambridge University Press,
  2. Richardson M. (1960) Holy Bible. Brookline City: American Societies Pub.
  1. Robert A Weinberger (1991)Quality of Life for Persons with Disabilities, London: Aspen Publishers,
  1. The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. (2009). Humanitarian law that governs. Mexico City: Red Cross Society Press.

MARK OF THE BEAST 666 …….Mwanza Matthews

666 Mark of the Beast by Mwanza Matthews

Who is the Beat and what is their Mark?

Introduction

They say that 666 and the mark of the beast is the severest warning found in the entire Bible, yet we find there is a massive number of interpretations on what the mark of the beast is. Most believe that 666 is the mark of the beast but not closely that Revelation 13:17 says, “And that no man might buy or sell, save he that had the mark, or the name of the beast, or the number of his name.” Did you note that the mark of the beast is different to the number of his name being 666, which is the number of a man? The day will come when all people will get either the mark, the name, or the number. This doesn’t mean that the government will say someday, “Do you want the mark, the name, or the number?

Prophecy minded Christians of today imagine that 666 and the mark of the beast will come from the devil and will be enforced by the Antichrist and will be used to control buying and selling, and they assume it will be centred around some kind of high tech computer technology. Revelation 13:16 says “And he causeth all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and bond, to receive a mark in their right hand, or in their foreheads” The Bible does not specifically say it will be a “miniature biochip” or even that it will involve technology at all. These modern words, “computer,” “biochip,” “verichip,” “technology,” “bar code,” and “scanner” do not appear in Revelation. People just assume that it will happen this way.

The Bible does specifically say in Revelation 19:20, “He deceived them that had received the mark of the beast” Did you notice that those who receive 666 or the mark of the beast are deceived. It stands to reason therefore that 666 and the mark of the beast must involve some sort of subtle deception, that is, it must not be too obvious or easily noticed. If it were, how could almost the entire world be mislead? Jesus warned us that Satan’s deceptions are so deceptive they can “deceive, if possible, even the elect.” Matthew 24:24. How deceptive would it be for someone to command everyone to accept a computerized biochip in their foreheads or in their hands? How many real people do you know who would accept big government implanting biochip technology inside their heads?

When we look carefully at Revelation, we discover that the mark of the beast is not the only thing placed in people’s foreheads. Amazingly, the forehead is mentioned many times apart from the mark. The first time the mark is mentioned is in Revelation 13:16. Three verses later John saw a group called the 144,000 with the “Father’s name written in their foreheads” Revelation 14:1. This solitary verse places new light on the whole topic. One group gets the mark of the beast while the other group gets the Mark of God, that is, the name of God in their foreheads. Referring to the saved, the very last chapter of the Bible says, “They shall see his face; and his name shall be in their foreheads.” Revelation 22:4. Hence both saints and sinners will all have something in their foreheads one day. Does this mean that God’s people will walk around with actual visible letters written on their foreheads?

The apostle John, who wrote Revelation, also saw an evil scarlet woman riding a beast. “And upon her forehead was a name written, MYSTERY, BABYLON THE GREAT, THE MOTHER OF HARLOTS” Revelation 17:5. No one doubts this is a symbolic prophecy. There will be no real prostitute riding a beast and therefore the writing of that mysterious name upon her forehead is also symbolic as the woman here symbolically represents a Church.

Was the mark the Lord set upon Cain a physical mark or was it symbolic also? Genesis 4:15 reads, “And the LORD said unto him, Therefore whosoever slayeth Cain, vengeance shall be taken on him sevenfold. And the LORD set a mark upon Cain, lest any finding him should kill him.” Did Cain spend the rest of his life with writing on His forehead and would anyone have acknowledged it?

The idea of the hand and forehead is not only found in Revelation. It is by no coincidence that Moses speaking of the Ten Commandments told the Israelites, “These Commandments that I give you today are to be upon your hearts…Tie them as symbols on your HANDS and bind them on your FOREHEADS” Deuteronomy 6:6, 8. Note the KJV translates “on your foreheads” to “frontlets between thine eyes” which means forehead. Again Moses said, “Fix these words of mine in your hearts and minds; tie them as symbols on your HANDS and bind them on your FOREHEADS.” Deuteronomy 11:18. In other words, God said His Ten Commandment law was to be a sign upon our hands and foreheads. Where does the mark of the beast go? What about the Seal of God? So what is the symbolism behind your HANDS and FOREHEAD?

Some believe 666 and the mark is a microchip injected into the hand or forehead. Others feel it may be connected to a credit or national health card or even a bar code or tattoo. Are we to speculate to understand Bible prophecy? 2 Peter 1:20 “Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the scripture is of any private interpretation.” So what are all theses theories you here today on 666 and the mark of the beast being technology? They are speculation, which we are told not to do and are not necessary. So how about we take the Biblical approach and see what God’s Word says 666 and the mark is.

Who is the Beast and what is their Mark?

Who is the beast that enforces the mark?

A sensible approach to understanding 666 and the mark of the beast would be to first identify who the beast is so we can then establish what 666 and their Mark is. So let’s start with the origins of antichrist. John said that in his time there were MANY Antichrists and anyone that denies Jesus came in the flesh is antichrist. 2 John 1:7. This for example would include a Church that denies Jesus came in the flesh by saying that Christ took on the sinless nature of Mary’s flesh. It may shock you to know that John said the origin of antichrist was from the early Church. 1 John 2:18-19 “Little children, it is the last time: and as you have heard that antichrist shall come, even now are there MANY antichrists; whereby we know that it is the last time. 19 They went out from US, but they were not of US; for if they had been of US, they would no doubt have continued with US: but they went out, that they might be made manifest that they were not all of US.” John is warning us that antichrist was part of the early Church that he and the other disciples established but went out on there own and formed their own Church. This is not an individual although could be headed by an individual, especially when you consider that Revelation 13:18 says that 666 is the number of a man heading this beast power. John is also pointing out that Antichrist means in place of Christ and not just against Christ. So who claims to be God on Earth and places himself in place of Christ? Which Church broke away from the early Church and makes this blasphemous claim?

Daniel 7 unlocks Revelation 13 and reveals who the beast is

When Bible prophecy is symbolic in nature, the well known and proven day for a year principle is applied as demonstrated by Luke 13:32-33, Ezekiel 4:6, and Numbers 14:34. See also commentary on Daniel 7:25 under “Until a time and…

Beginning with Daniel 7:3, we find Daniel in vision and he sees “four great beasts came up from the sea, diverse one from another.” These four beasts were like a lion (Babylon), a bear (Medo-Persia), a leopard (Greece) with four heads (Alexanders four generals that took over when he died suddenly) and some dreadful, terrible beast (Rome) that had ten horns. Some privately speculate that the Beast is Satan which is easily proved wrong by Revelation 20:10-11 which says, “And the DEVIL that deceived them was cast into the lake of fire and brimstone, where the BEAST and the false prophet are, and shall be tormented day and night for ever and ever.” Since we are told not to speculate, what does the Bible say a Beast is? Daniel 7:23 states, “The fourth beast (Rome) shall be the fourth kingdom upon earth, which shall be diverse from all kingdoms, and shall devour the whole earth, and shall tread it down, and break it in pieces.

Daniel 7:24 informs us that “the ten horns out of this kingdom (Rome) are ten kings (divided Europe) that shall arise: and another shall rise after them; and he shall be diverse from the first, and he shall subdue three kings.” When the Roman Empire collapsed it divided into ten kingdoms. The king that subdued three of these ten kingdoms is called the little horn in Daniel 7:8 because it is a small kingdom and history reveals that the three of the ten kingdoms it destroyed were the Vandals the Heruli and the Ostrogoths. History already proves beyond doubt that this diverse kingdom was a religious political power that was responsible for their demise because they opposed them. Do you know who this little horn is yet which is synonymous with the beast enforcing the mark? Daniel 7:25 informs us this little horn power would “speak great words against the most High [God]” and oppress God’s people and most importantly it states that he will think to change times and laws. What power changed the law of God? This is a very significant statement that many do not even stop to consider but is of the utmost importance and we are warned of this change with very good reason. Most Christians are keeping this law unknowingly in reverence to the beast power and the majority of Christians have absolutely no idea.

Moving now to Revelation Chapter 13, we see something really incredible. John in his vision sees exactly the same thing that Daniel saw as a composite beast. Note how it matches Daniel seven precisely. It says that a beast (kingdom government or political power) with seven heads and ten horns rises out of the sea with a crown upon each horn (ten kings) and upon his heads the name of blasphemy. Verse 2 goes on to say the beast was like unto a leopard and feet of a bear and mouth of a lion (same four beasts) and that the dragon (Satan) gave this beast his power, his throne, and his vast authority. Verse 3 through 6 then states that one of the seven heads (head representing the Papacy) had received a fatal wound (causing death) but his deadly wound was healed and all the world would wonder after the beast and they worshipped the dragon which gave power to the beast and they worshipped the beast also. The beast was allowed to make proud claims which were insulting to God, and it was permitted to have authority for 42 months. Daniel 7:25 says, “a time (1 year) and times (2 years) and the dividing of time (half a year = total 3.5 years * 12 Months = 42 months)” which of course is the same period of time. (Bible time works in lunar months which = 30 days * 42 months = 1260 days and using the day for a year rule = 1260 years). It opened its mouth and uttered blasphemies against God and blasphemed his name and his residence, i.e., those who are living in heaven. Verse 7 states that it was also allowed to fight against God’s people and defeat them, and it was given authority over every tribe, nation, language and race.

How many countries have beasts that represent their country? For example; Australia has the Kangaroo and America, the Bald Eagle. God has done the same thing with symbolic Bible prophecy and has used beasts to represent kingdoms. This is seen in Daniel 7:17 and 7:23 where the Bible clearly identifies a Beast as a kingdom or government or a political power and does not mean something beastly as many assume. After the severest persecution in A.D. 321, Constantine who was a pagan became Caesar in Rome and he saw the balance of power shifting from paganism to the Church. So in 321 A.D. Constantine passed the first law enforcing Sunday worship. Previously there had never been a law enforcing Sunday observance. Two years later Constantine joined the Catholic Church and so now we had a mingling of paganism with the Church. In order to control the eastern and western halves of his empire, Constantine moved his empire from Rome to Byzantium by building a city there, which he named Constantinople after himself and thus transferred his headquarters over to Constantinople leaving Rome vacant. As a result the Papal Church moved in and sat on the throne of Caesar and so the Church took over Rome. This explains what Revelation 13:2 means, “and the dragon gave him his power, and his seat, and great authority.” The dragon as previously stated represents Satan. See Revelation 12:9 and 20:2.

Revelation 13:5 says this first beast would also blaspheme God. Luke 5:21 reads, “And the scribes and the Pharisees began to reason, saying, Who is this which speaketh blasphemies? Who can forgive sins, but God alone?

Today in the Catholic Church they allege that every Priest has power to forgive sins. Catholic Quote: “To pardon a single sin requires all the omnipotence of God… The Jews justly said: ‘Who can forgive sins but God alone?’ But what only GOD can do by His omnipotence, the PRIEST can ALSO do by saying ‘Ego te absolvo a peccatis tuis’ [I absolve you from your sin].” — Alphonsus de Liguori, Dignity and Duties of the Priest, pages 34-35.

No man on Earth can forgive sins. As for power, Elizabeth I defied the Pope and he sent word to all Catholics in England not to obey the Queen. Henry of Germany offended the Pope and he had to stand barefoot in the snow for three days to pay penance to the Pope before he would forgive him.

The Papacy also regularly make claims to take the place of God on Earth, which is clearly according to the Word of God blasphemous. John 10:33 says, “The Jews answered him, saying, For a good work we stone you not; but for blasphemy; and because that you, being a man, makest thyself God.” As stated previously, the beast makes many blasphemous claims and this is another Biblical definition for blasphemy and criteria for identifying the beast enforcing the mark.

Remember that the apostle John demonstrated that antichrist came from the early Church and he also demonstrated that antichrist was in place of God. Does the Pope put himself in place of Christ, and hence match the definition of antichrist?

We hold upon this earth the place of God almighty.” — Pope Leo XIII, Encyclical Letter, June 20, 1894.

The Pope is not only the representative of Jesus Christ, but he is Jesus Christ, Himself, hidden under the veil of human flesh.” — Catholic National, July 1895.

The Pope and God are the same, so he has all power in Heaven and earth.” — Pope Pius V, quoted in Barclay, Chapter XXVII, p. 218, “Cities Petrus Bertanous.”

Revelation 13:7 says the beast would fight against God’s people and defeat them. This coming statement is not intended to foster any ill towards another as this would be contrary to Christian teaching and not only that but over the centuries, many wonderful Christian people from the Catholic Church have done many outstanding deeds. But truth is truth and the sad truth is the Roman Catholic Church murdered and tortured between 50 and 150 million people as heretics. Watch an example true story of this on a Death in Red Square and why.

Who do the Catholic Church say are heretics?Heretics (those who are not members of the Catholic Church or who do not hold to Catholic doctrine) worship a God who is a liar, and a Christ who is a liar.” — St. Augustine, (quoted in “Patrologiae Cursus Completus: Series Graca”, by Fr. J. P. Migne, Paris: 1866, 42:207).

How does the Papal Church say they should deal with heretics?When confronted with heresy, she (Catholic Church) does not content herself with persuasion, arguments of an intellectual and moral order appear to her insufficient, and she has recourse to force, to corporal punishment, to torture.” — The Rector of the Catholic Institute of Paris, H.M.A. Baudrillart, quoted in The Catholic Church, The Renassance, and Protestantism, p 182-183.

A heretic merits the pains of fire….By the Gospel, the canons, civil law, and custom, heretics must be burned.” — The American Textbook of Popery, p 164 (quoting from the “Directory for the Inquisitors”).

What about this mysterious number 666 that sends a shiver down the spine of so many people when they hear or see it, as they conceive it as being the devils number. Is 666 really the devils number? The book of Revelation says that 666 is the number of his name and that it is the number of a man. Revelation 13:16-18 reads, “And he causeth all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and bond, to receive a mark in their right hand, or in their foreheads: 17 And that no man might buy or sell, save he that had the mark, or the name of the beast, or the number of his name. 18 Here is wisdom. Let him that hath understanding count the number of the beast: for it is the number of a man; and his number is Six hundred threescore and six.” The word translated “count” in the verse eighteen above means to count, compute, calculate or reckon according to the Thayer dictionary.

So 666 is the number of a mans name and Revelation says that this man is the head of this antichrist beast power. Since the beast power is the Papal Church, it is not hard to work out who the most prominent man of this system is. The Pope wears a triple tiered crown which signifies he is the king of Heaven and Earth and Purgatory. This of course is obviously wrong. There is a King of Kings and His name is Jesus Christ our Lord. He is King of Heaven and King of Earth and since there is no purgatory, that one can go to the Bishop of Rome. On the original crown are inscribed the words in Latin, the Papal title “VICARIUS FILII DEI”, which means “Vicar of Christ” or Substitute for Christ, which is synonymous with Antichrist, i.e., assuming the power of God on earth. The literal meaning of each word of this Papal title is as follows: VICARIUS – substituting for, or in place of, FILII – means son and DEI – means God. They now deny that this was ever a Papal title but the evidence though it is no longer blatantly obvious, does still exist. Here is one of their very own quotes.

Question:What are the letters supposed to be in the Pope’s crown, and what do they signify if anything?Answer:The letters inscribed in the Pope’s mitre are these: Vicarius Filii Dei, which is the Latin for Vicar of the Son of God. Catholics hold that the Church which is a visible society must have a visible head. Christ, before His ascension into heaven, appointed St. Peter to act as His representative. Upon the death of Peter the man who succeeded to the office of Peter as Bishop of Rome, was recognized as the head of the Church. Hence to the Bishop of Rome, as head of the Church, was given the title ‘Vicar of Christ.’ Enemies of the Papacy denounce this title as a malicious assumption. But the Bible informs us that Christ did not only give His Church authority to teach, but also to rule. Laying claim to the authority to rule in Christ’s spiritual kingdom, in Christ’s stead, is not a whit more malicious than laying claim to the authority to teach in Christ’s name. And this every Christian minister does.” — Our Sunday Visitor, (Catholic Weekly), April 18, 1915, thirteenth question under “Bureau of Information,” p. 3, (on page 2 appears “sanctions for the editor” from Pope Pius X, dated May 17, 1914; from the Apostolic Delegate, John Bonzano, dated April 27, 1913; and from J. H. Alerding, Bishop of Fort Wayne, Ind., dated March 29, 1912).

Hover here for an excerpt of an article called “The number of a man” about the known titles of the Pope or select for the full original image. Page 17 continued.

Some that oppose this truth say it was manufactured by the largest Sabbath keeping Church today but you might be surprised to know that the knowledge of 666 being the number of the Pope is not new. This was common knowledge by many of the early Protestants since about 1620 which is more than 200 hundred years before this Church existed. You can always guarantee there will be opposition to all truth as the enemy will do every thing in his power to ensure that truth does not become popular or common knowledge. Please note that there are other names that also add up to 666 as you would expect but the fact that this one does in conjunction with all the other evidence is what makes the truth conclusive as all the criteria is met. See the mark of the beast and the origin of 666 to discover the origins of that mysterious number 666.

V=5F=0D=500

I=1I=1E=0

C=100L=50I=1

A=0I=1

R=0I=1

I=1

U=5

S=0

________

Total  112+    53+    501=   666

Above is a Papal tiara that was presented to Pius IX by Belgium in 1871. Select the picture of the tiara to view full size or here for a cropped version. The complete inscription including text on the unseen sides is: IESV CHRISTI VICARIO INFALLIBILI ORBIS SVPREMO IN TERRA RECTORI REGVM ATQVE POPVLORVM PATRI which translates to: To the Infallible Vicar of Jesus Christ To the Supreme Governor of the World on Earth To the Father of Nations and Kings.

Every criteria specified by the Bible is met by this beast that enforces the mark. The Bible says this beast would receive a deadly head wound. The Pope took over Rome and rose to power in 538 A.D. The Bible informs us they would have un-interrupted power for 1260 years which brings us to 1798. So what happened in 1798? Precisely on time as prophesied, in 1798 Napoleon sent his General Berthier down to Rome to kidnap the Pope and exiled and imprisoned him in France. In 1799 the Pope became ill and died. The head of the Catholic Church was dead! This is the deadly head wound. For a while there was no head of the Roman Church. The Encyclopaedia Americana, 1941 edition says. “In 1798 he (Berthier) made his entrance into Rome, ABOLISHED THE PAPAL GOVERNMENT and established a secular one.Hover for an article excerpt from page 3 of the London Times dated 12-3-1798. The Bible says the deadly wound would be healed, and in 1800 they elected a new Pope and the healing of the deadly wound began.

However, this newly elected Pope had no real power until 1929 when a man in Italy called Benito Mussolini signed a concordat in Rome giving back to the Pope, not the whole city but over 100 acres which is now known as the Vatican, and so the healing of the deadly wound continues. As a result, the Bible says, “the whole world wondered after the beast.” This picture shows Benito Mussolini reading his credentials prior to signing the Lateran Treaty on behalf of King Victor Emmanuel III. Cardinal Gasparri (person seated), signed on behalf of Pope Pius XI. American Presidents have bowed before the Pope but they have never bowed before the head of any other Church.

With the arrival of the printing press in the 15th century and the resulting explosion of Bibles accessible in the common language from many Protestant sources, it became readily evident to those who could now study the prophecies of Daniel and Revelation particularly, that Bible prophecy identified by the use of symbols, a persecuting apostate Church generally known as antichrist. If we list the many characteristics of antichrist, the following becomes readily apparent. Select to see Prophecy Charts and more information that identifies the Antichrist.

  1. It would rise to be a great power after the fall of the pagan Roman Empire (after 476 A.D.) 2. It would geographically be a small nation. (a little horn) 3. It would uproot three of the ten kingdoms the Roman Empire collapsed into and reveals who on this point alone. 4. It would rule over many nations, people and tongues. (it will be universal) 5. It would be headquartered in the city of seven hills, Rome. 6. It would be a religio-political entity – a political city-state ruled by a priest-king. 7. It would have a priest-king that would make great and blasphemous claims. 8. It would claim authority over all kings. 9. It would claim its power to change the holy times and laws of God as its MARK of authority. 10. It would be an apostate Church that makes the nations drink her cup of apostate doctrine. 11. It would be a “mother” Church, with apostate daughters coming from her. 12. It would be a persecuting power, killing the faithful saints of Jesus Christ as heretics. 13. It would hold power and authority for 1260 years following the fall of pagan Rome. 14. It would suffer a deadly wound that will end 1260 years of dominance and persecution. 15. It would be revived after the deadly wound and all the world would wonder at its revival.

In this the “Historical” interpretation, the antichrist was clearly not merely just a single individual, it was a system of apostasy and persecution that would hold control for over twelve centuries. The inevitable conclusion of those who studied these prophecies in scripture, before and during the Protestant Reformation, was that there was only ONE entity that fits all the above characteristics: the Papal dynasty of the Roman Catholic Church. Is it any wonder that the Catholic Church was so violently opposed to the scriptures being available for everyone to read for themselves?

The Protestant Reformation

Satan obviously does not want anyone to know who the Antichrist beast power is as this would certainly give Christians the upper hand in understanding what 666 and the mark of the beast is. So naturally, Satan has many counter lies coming against this truth. Besides the fact that history and the Bible is clear that it can be none other than the Papacy, are these just our thoughts or is it the understanding of many theologians? The Protestant Reformation in the 1500’s literally changed the course of history and helped move Europe out of the Dark Ages and led to the rise of true religious freedom. Its original principles eventually found expression in the First Amendment of the Constitution of the United States of America which teaches that when it comes to religion, the governments on earth have no right to control the conscience.

True Protestantism teaches the priesthood of all believers (2 Peter 2:9-10) and every person anywhere can be saved by coming directly to our loving heavenly Father through His only Son, Jesus Christ (John 14:6). “There is one God, and one mediator between God and men, the Man Christ Jesus.” 1 Timothy 2:5. It also teaches salvation by grace through faith in Jesus (Ephesians 2:8) and the supremacy of the Bible above the visible Church, (2 Timothy 3:16) above traditions, Pastors, Kings, Priests and Popes.

Below are several quotes on what the major Protestant Reformers taught about antichrist. Please note that no offence is intended towards any person, for this would be contrary to the teaching of Jesus Christ (John 13:34-35), but rather to just simply present what some of the most significant Christian leaders who have ever lived believed about “the man of sin” (2 Thessalonians 2:3), “the little horn” (Daniel 7:8) and “the beast” (Revelation 13:1) and about the antichrist.

John Wycliffe “When the western church was divided for about 40 years between two rival popes, one in Rome and the other in Avigon, France, each pope called the other pope antichrist – and John Wycliffe is reputed to have regarded them as both being right: “two halves of Antichrist, making up the perfect Man of Sin between them.” — Ibid

Thomas Cranmer (1489-1556) (Anglican): “Whereof it followeth Rome to be the seat of antichrist, and the pope to be very antichrist himself. I could prove the same by many other scriptures, old writers, and strong reasons.” (Referring to prophecies in Revelation and Daniel.) — Works by Cranmer, Vol. 1, pp. 6-7.

John Wesley (1703-1791) (Methodist): Speaking of the Papacy, John Wesley wrote, “He is in an emphatical sense, the Man of Sin, as he increases all manner of sin above measure. And he is, too, properly styled the Son of Perdition, as he has caused the death of numberless multitudes, both of his opposers and followers… He it is…that exalteth himself above all that is called God, or that is worshipped…claiming the highest power, and highest honour…claiming the prerogatives which belong to God alone.” — Antichrist and His Ten Kingdoms, by John Wesley, pg. 110.

Martin Luther (1483-1546) (Lutheran): Based on prophetic studies, Martin Luther finally declared, “We here are of the conviction that the papacy is the seat of the true and real Antichrist.” (Aug. 18, 1520). — Taken from The Prophetic Faith of Our Fathers, by LeRoy Froom. Vol. 2., pg. 121. “Luther … proved, by the revelations of Daniel and St. John, by the epistles of St. Paul, St. Peter, and St. Jude, that the reign of Antichrist, predicted and described in the Bible, was the Papacy … And all the people did say, Amen! A holy terror seized their souls. It was Antichrist whom they beheld seated on the pontifical throne. This new idea, which derived greater strength from the prophetic descriptions launched forth by Luther into the midst of his contemporaries, inflicted the most terrible blow on Rome.” — Taken from J. H. Merle D’aubigne’s History of the Reformation of the Sixteen Century, book vi, chapter xii, p. 215.

John Calvin (1509-1564) (Presbyterian): “Some persons think us too severe and censorious when we call the Roman pontiff Antichrist. But those who are of this opinion do not consider that they bring the same charge of presumption against Paul himself, after whom we speak and whose language we adopt… I shall briefly show that (Paul’s words in II Thess. 2) are not capable of any other interpretation than that which applies them to the Papacy.” — Taken from Institutes of the Christian Religion, by John Calvin.

Roger Williams (1603-1683) (First Baptist Pastor in America): Pastor Williams spoke of the Pope as “the pretended Vicar of Christ on earth, who sits as God over the Temple of God, exalting himself not only above all that is called God, but over the souls and consciences of all his vassals, yea over the Spirit of Christ, over the Holy Spirit, yea, and God himself…speaking against the God of heaven, thinking to change times and laws; but he is the son of perdition (II Thess. 2).” — The Prophetic Faith of Our Fathers, by Froom, Vol. 3, pg. 52.

John Knox (1505-1572) (Scotch Presbyterian): John Knox sought to counteract “that tyranny which the pope himself has for so many ages exercised over the church.” As with Luther, he finally concluded that the Papacy was “the very antichrist, and son of perdition, of whom Paul speaks.” — The Zurich Letters, by John Knox, pg. 199.

Cotton Mather (1663-1728) (Congregational Theologian): “The oracles of God foretold the rising of an Antichrist in the Christian Church: and in the Pope of Rome, all the characteristics of that Antichrist are so marvelously answered that if any who read the Scriptures do not see it, there is a marvelous blindness upon them.” — Taken from The Fall of Babylon by Cotton Mather in Froom’s book, The Prophetic Faith of Our Fathers, Vol. 3, pg. 113.

The Westminster Confession of Faith (1647): “There is no other head of the church but the Lord Jesus Christ. Nor can the pope of Rome in any sense be head thereof; but is that Antichrist, that man of sin and son of perdition that exalteth himself in the church against Christ and all that is called God.” — Taken from Philip Schaff’s, The Creeds of Christendom, With a History and Critical Notes, III, p. 658, 659, ch. 25, sec. 6.

A Great Cloud of Witnesses: “John Wycliffe, William Tyndale, [Tyndale Bible] Martin Luther, John Calvin, Thomas Cranmer; in the seventeenth century, Bunyan, the translators of the King James Bible and the men who published the Westminster and Baptist confessions of Faith; Sir Isaac Newton, John Wesley, Whitfield, Jonathan Edwards; and more recently Spurgeon, Bishop J.C. Ryle and Dr. Martin Lloyd-Jones; these men among countless others, all saw the office of the Papacy as the antichrist.” — Taken from All Roads Lead to Rome, by Michael de Semlyen. Dorchestor House Publications, p. 205. 1991.

What does it mean that this beast would change God’s law?

We saw earlier that Daniel 7:25 says that this beast power would change the law of God. Did the Roman Catholic Church change God’s law and so meet this criteria? Does the Pope believe he can change the law of God?

The Pope is of great authority and power, that he is able to modify, declare, or interpret even divine laws. The Pope can modify divine law, since his power is not of man, but of God, and he acts as vicegerent of God upon earth…” — Lucius Ferraris, in “Prompta Bibliotheca Canonica, Juridica, Moralis, Theologica, Ascetica, Polemica, Rubristica, Historica”, Volume V, article on “Papa, Article II”, titled “Concerning the extent of Papal dignity, authority, or dominion and infallibility”, #30, published in Petit-Montrouge (Paris) by J. P. Migne, 1858 edition.

We may according to the fullness of our power, dispose of the law and dispense above the law. Those whom the Pope of Rome doth separate, it is not a man that separates them but God. For the Pope holdeth place on earth, not simply of a man but of the true God….dissolves, not by human but rather by divine authority….I am in all and above all, so that God Himself and I, the vicar of God, hath both one consistory, and I am able to do almost all that God can do…Wherefore, no marvel, if it be in my power to dispense with all things, yea with the precepts of Christ.” — Decretales Domini Gregori ix Translatione Episcoporum, (on the Transference of Bishops), title 7, chapter 3; Corpus Juris Canonice (2nd Leipzig ed., 1881), col. 99; (Paris, 1612), tom. 2, Decretales, col. 205 (while Innocent III was Pope).

What law did the beast change and by whose authority?

In 1562 the Archbishop of Reggio openly declared that tradition now stood above scripture. This is what he wrote. “The authority of the Church is illustrated most clearly by the scriptures, for on one hand she recommends them, declares them to be divine, and offers them to us to be read, and on the other hand, the legal precepts in the scriptures taught by the Lord have ceased by virtue of the same authority. The Sabbath, the most glorious day in the law, has been changed into the Lord’s day. These and other similar matters have not ceased by virtue of Christ’s teaching (for He says that He has come to fulfill the law, not to destroy it), but they have been changed by the authority of the Church.” — Gaspare de Posso, Archbishop of Reggio, Council of Trent.

In the Roman Catholic Catechism we also find the following questions and answers in regards the Sabbath:

Question: Which day is the Sabbath day? Answer: Saturday is the Sabbath day. Question: Why do we observe Sunday instead of Saturday? Answer: We observe Sunday instead of Saturday because the Catholic Church in the council of Laodicea (A.D. 364), transferred the solemnity from Saturday to Sunday. — Rev. Peter Geiermann, C.S.S.R., The Convert’s Catechism of Catholic Doctrine, p. 50, 3rd edition, 1957.

We know what 666 is but what is the Mark of the Beast?

Now knowing who the first beast of Revelation 13 is that enforces the Mark, perhaps the best approach would be to ask the Catholic Church themselves what they say their Mark is. But first consider these ten points identifying what the mark of the beast is.

Ten Points defining 666 and the Mark of the Beast

  1. The mark comes from the beast, which represents the Roman Catholic Church. 2. The Mark of the Beast is deceptive and so is not obvious. (Revelation 19:20) 3. The warning against the mark will be given with a loud voice, thus it must be clear and easy to understand. (Revelation 14:9) 4. The three angels reveal a comprehensive message from God before the second coming of Jesus Christ to the entire world to help people understand the mark. (Revelation 14:6-16) 5. The mark involves a special sin against God Himself, for those who receive it will drink the wine of His wrath. (Revelation 14:9-11) 6. The mark will be received on the forehead, which represents the mind, or on the hand, which represents the actions. (Revelation 14:9; Deuteronomy 6:5-8; 11:18) 7. The mark has something to do with the changing of God’s law. (compare Daniel 7:25 with Revelation 13:16 and see Deuteronomy 6:5-8) 8. Those who worship Jesus Christ as Creator will not get the mark. (Revelation 14:7, 9-11) 9. Those who keep the Ten Commandments will not get the mark. (Revelation 14:9, 12) 10. 666 is the number of a mans name from the beast power that we have to add or count. (Revelation 13:17-18)

What does the Roman Catholic Church say their Mark is?

The following quotes from the Roman Catholic Church are their views on being able to change the Ten Commandments of God. Note what the Roman Catholic Church actually say their MARK is. Their statements are extremely credible when you consider their definition is perfectly consistent with absolutely all other scripture in regards to the mark of the beast.

The Pope is of great authority and power, that he is able to modify, declare, or interpret even divine laws. The Pope can modify divine law, since his power is not of man, but of God, and he acts as vicegerent of God upon earth…” — Lucius Ferraris, in “Prompta Bibliotheca Canonica, Juridica, Moralis, Theologica, Ascetica, Polemica, Rubristica, Historica”, Volume V, article on “Papa, Article II”, titled “Concerning the extent of Papal dignity, authority, or dominion and infallibility”, #30, published in Petit-Montrouge (Paris) by J. P. Migne, 1858 edition.

Of course the Catholic church claims that the change [i.e. Sabbath to Sunday] was her act, and the act as a MARK of her ecclesiastical authority in religious things.” — H.F. Thomas, Chancellor to Cardinal Gibbons. [Parenthesis added]

Sunday is our MARK or authority. . .the church is above the Bible, and this transference of Sabbath observance is proof of that fact” — Catholic Record of London, Ontario Sept 1,1923.

The Catholic Church declares their MARK to be their power to change God’s times and laws. (Daniel 7:25) The only problem here as we have already seen from scripture, is that man cannot change God’s laws. The created can not change what the Creator has put in place for His creation such as His unchanging law of love. See also Mark 7:6-9. Watch a short video on Authority and Tradition.

666 Mark of the Beast – Page 3 – Great Controversy, Technology & Sunday law

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Who is the Beast and what is their Mark?

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The Great Controversy

Remember that a woman in prophecy represents a true or an Apostate Church. Revelation chapters 12-19 all reference the same Apostate Church that persecuted the saints for 1260 years. For more information see Mystery Babylon and for a very deep and detailed study that proves beyond doubt Who and where is the Antichrist, select this link.

What is about to be presented here has seismic implications and is something that Satan has hundreds of deceptions to prevent the Christian world from knowing. Our adversary will stop at nothing to have you see the greater picture of what is happening in this regard. It is literally about good and evil, God’s true Church and an apostate Church and most importantly, and do NOT miss this point – whom we Worship. Revelation 13:2 says “…and the dragon [Satan] gave him [the Pope] his power, and his seat, and great authority.” If you observe nothing else here, please at least understand the following points. Satan wants to be worshipped as God (Isaiah 14:12-14). Worship is ultimately found in the Church so Satan has to achieve his worship from the Church. He also found that he could inflict more damage on the Church from within, so Satan gave his “power, and his seat, and great authority” to the first beast of Revelation 13, the Papacy, which is the “great whore”, mystery Babylon the mother of harlots that is drunk on the blood of the saints she murdered through the dark ages (Revelation 17:1-6). He did this to obtain the Worship he coveted.

The Levite Priests had the colour blue in their robes (Exodus 28:4-6) which represented God’s law (Numbers 15:38-40). Did you note that this Harlot woman (Church) has exactly the same colours of the Old Testament Priest’s robes except blue? Catholic Priest robes are also missing the colour blue and not by coincidence. This whole scene is symbolic of a Church in control of state (kingdom) that has changed and forgotten the law of God. The Sabbath is a SIGN that it is the true God we worship and belong to; therefore, keeping the wrong day has us fall short of this promise. Paganism from Satan is deeply rooted in Sun worship, so one of the first things Satan had to accomplish was to change the day of worship to a day that he instituted and DIFFERENT from the day that is a SIGN that we belong to God.

God created the world in six literal days so we have a six day week… right? No. God added ONE extra day to the week so man could rest in Jesus and Worship Him totally on this day. The extra day added cannot go in place of the first day as it was a WORK day and was used for creating this world. The Seventh day which is the extra day God added with only one purpose is the day that God blessed and sanctified and made Holy. It is not just about a day of worship, IT IS A SIGN that it is God we worship and give our allegiance to. It is NOT a sign that it is God we belong to if we keep another secular day. It is THE Seventh day that was added to the week for this ONE and ONLY purpose. It cannot move or end as it is part of a much bigger plan that Christians need to open their hearts and spiritual minds to.

We find in the Bible that the number SEVEN to God represents perfection and completeness. On the other hand, man was created on day SIX and this number represents the worship of man, the number of man and signifies his rebellion, imperfection, works and disobedience. The image that Nebuchadnezzar made in rebellion to God was 60 cubits high, six cubits wide and when the other dimension is not given it is the same as the width. This means this man made image had the dimensions of 666. The number THREE represents the God head and so triple six represents something very wrong.

If this very special Commandment, the Seventh day Sabbath, were abolished at the cross then we would no longer need the Seventh day of the week and therefore God would have changed our week back to SIX days representing man and no longer perfection and completeness. Would God change the days of the week to a number representing man and not perfection and completeness? Not a chance! The Seventh day is here to stay and was added for no other purpose. Number SEVEN and the Seventh day is very significant in more ways than one and is something we need to try and understand. Napoleon knew the significance of this and hated Christianity which is also part of why he ended the Popes rule and tried to change to a ten day week. His attempt at doing so obviously failed. Due to the significance and importance of a SEVEN day week, God no doubt had his hand on this situation as well to ensure it did not come to pass.

There are now over 500 different denominations of Sabbath keeping Churches that keep the Seventh day Sabbath, but why does most of the remainder of the Christian World have literally hundreds of different reasons for NOT keeping the true Sabbath? How many reasons do you think there should be as to why the very law that God spoke and wrote in person has been reduced to nine Commandments? One might imagine one or two reasons, but I have been given more than a hundred. This absolutely ridiculous number of excuses can only be possible if the enemy is desperate to convince us that this day has no significance. If Christians don’t start opening their minds to the significance and truth of this one Commandment then many will perish in the end as the book of Revelation tells us when it says the whole world will be deceived.

Revelation 13:12 says, “And he exerciseth all the power of the first beast before him, and causeth the earth and them which dwell therein to worship the first beast, whose deadly wound was healed.

Is the entire world truly and literally going to bow down and worship the Catholic Church? That is just not feasible, logical or possible. So what does this verse actually mean? Looking at this from a different angle for a moment, how is it that we show it is God we obey and worship and hence give our allegiance to? In reference to God feeding His people with manna in the wilderness, for forty years God worked three miracles every week to show Israel which day was holy. 1) No manna fell on the seventh day. 2) They could not keep it overnight without spoilage, but 3) when they kept it over the Sabbath, it remained sweet and fresh. What did God do to see if His children would keep His Commandments?

Exodus 16:4 “Then said the LORD unto Moses, Behold, I will rain bread from heaven for you; and the people shall go out and gather a certain rate every day, that I may prove them, whether they will walk in my law, or no.

God wanted to find if they would obey Him and keep ALL of His Commandments and laws, and how did God do that? He tested their allegiance to Him by seeing if they would keep His Seventh day Sabbath or not. The Sabbath was the test Commandment to see if they would obey God and worship Him alone. Did they pass the test?

Exodus 16:28 “And the LORD said unto Moses, How long refuse you to keep my Commandments and my laws?

They failed to keep the Sabbath on the seventh day as instructed by God as miserably as most do today and He accused them of breaking ALL His Commandments and laws. This is very significant. It is a SIGN that it is God we obey and worship by keeping this one Commandment. It proves our allegiance to Him. This is the only Commandment that defines that it is God the Creator that we do worship. Here are some of the scriptures that show the Sabbath is a sign that it is God we love, obey and worship and that it is God that sanctifies and makes us Holy when we keep His weekly Sabbaths.

Ezekiel 20:12 “Moreover also I gave them my sabbaths, to be a SIGN between me and them, that they might know that I am the LORD that sanctify them.” Ezekiel 20:20 “And hallow my sabbaths; and they shall be a SIGN between me and you, that you may know that I am the LORD your God.” Exodus 31:16-17 “Wherefore the children of Israel shall keep the sabbath, to observe the sabbath throughout their generations, for a PERPETUAL covenant. 17 It is a SIGN between me and the children of Israel FOREVER: for in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, and on the seventh day he rested, and was refreshed.

Does this perpetual covenant that is a SIGN forever, (Exodus 31:13-17) apply only to the Israel of God? Today there is an Israel of the flesh (1 Corinthians 10:18) and an Israel of God, Galatians 6:16. The Israel of the flesh are those that are Jews by birth. The Israel of God is anyone who belongs to Christ and is under the New Covenant. If we are Christ’s then we are spiritual Jews and the Israel of God. If we reject this truth then we cannot be under the New Covenant. Observe below who the New Covenant was ONLY made with. This came into effect when the Jews rejected God’s message from Stephen (Acts 6:8-7:60) and stoned him. See also Romans 2:28-29, Romans 9:6-8 and Galatians 3:28-29.

Hebrews 8:10 “For this is the covenant that I will make with the HOUSE OF ISRAEL after those days, saith the Lord; I will put my laws into their mind, and write them in their hearts: and I will be to them a God, and they shall be to me a people:

America already has blue laws for Sunday worship already in place in most states and something we will go into more detail later. Some crisis in earth’s final history will no doubt bring about a new world order that will cause a reuniting of Church and State (two horns, Revelation 13:11-12) as in the dark ages. As a result these blue laws will be enforced and accepted as being for our benefit. So how will the world be made to worship the Papacy? In exactly the same way we prove our allegiance to God. By worshipping on the day that Satan instituted through his agent the Papacy. When you worship on their day, you give your allegiance to the enemy who gave them their “power, seat and great authority” (Revelation 13:2) for this purpose. This is total rebellion against God and why it carries the wrath of God (Revelation 14:9-11). By worshiping on the Seventh day, it proves that we walk in God’s laws and that we are giving our allegiance to Him.

Revelation 14 is unmistakably about whom we worship and keeping God’s Commandments. It is easy to see if you truly love God with all your heart, might and soul. So does the fourth Commandment and the day matter? Even if you don’t fully understand it, you better believe it’s very important to God. We need to understand that we demonstrate our worship to God by our love and obedience. Isn’t love and obedience through faith what is important to God? Who are we going to give our allegiance to? Are we going to keep the day that Satan desires to be worshipped on or the day that God added to the week that is also a memorial of creation and a day that defines that it is God we Worship and belong to? As for me and my house, we will serve the Lord.

When God gave the Ten Commandments in fiery majesty, He had purpose in every Commandment. Not one was intended to change. Each and every one are to last as long as heaven and earth. If you study the table below you should see the bigger picture and why Satan changed the day through paganism.

God’s True Church The Apostate Church
Clothed with the sun. God, Church is light (1 John 1:5, Matthew 5:14) Clothed in purple and scarlet. Sin, Corruption (Revelation 17:3, Isaiah 1:18)
The remnant Church, from the original (Revelation 12:17) Mother of Harlots, other Churches came from her (Revelation 17:5)
It is God who wants the Worship and receives it (Revelation 14:7) It is Satan who wants the worship and receives it (Revelation 13:4)
Christ is the head of the Church (Ephesians 5:23) Man is the head of the Church (Catholic Church quote 1, quote 2)
Christ is its power and authority (Jude 1:25) Satan gave it its power and authority (Revelation 13:2)
Based on scripture (Acts 17:11, 1 John 2:5) Based on Tradition (Catholic Church quote, Mark 7:6-9)
Keeps God’s Commandments (Revelation 12:17, 14:12) Changed God’s Commandments (Daniel 7:25)
Worships God only (Keeps 2nd Commandment) Worships Idols and Mary (2nd Commandment deleted)
Keeps God’s true Sabbath day of Worship (Revelation 12:17) Changed the Sabbath to Satan’s day of Worship (Catholic Church quote 1, 2)
True day of Worship is based on the Word (Exodus 20:8-11) False day of worship comes from Paganism (Historic Quote 1, Quote 2)
True day comes from worship of the Son of God (Exodus 31:13-17, Isaiah 58:13-14) False day came from worship of the Sun god (Ezekiel 8:16)
Our allegiance is to God when we worship on His holy day (Ezekiel 20:20, Exodus 31:13-17, Revelation 14:7) Our allegiance is to Satan when we worship on their day (Hover or click here, Revelation 13:2, Revelation 13:4)
Jesus is the capstone (Matthew 21:42, 1 Peter 2:7) Satan through Paganism is the capstone (Revelation 13:2)
Does not commit fornication (Revelation 12:17, 14:12) Commits spiritual fornication (Revelation 14:8; 17:2, 4; 18:3, 9)
Works on destroying the powers of Satan (Luke 9:1) Satan through her tried to destroy God’s true Church (Revelation 13:7, Daniel 7:25)
Preaches the 3 angels messages One warns of the Mark of the Beast Does not preach the 3 angels messages The MARK of the Beast is her MARK
Reigns with Christ for ever and ever (Revelation 22:5) Destroyed by God and thrown into the lake of fire (Revelation 19:20)

The Mark of the Beast cannot be a Computer Chip

Many have been led to believe that the mark of the beast must be an implanted computer chip such as a biochip or verichip, partially because the KJV Bible states that the mark is in the hand or in the forehead. The mark of the beast is Satan’s counterfeit for the mark of God which is called His seal. Is the mark or seal of God a computer chip or some other technology? Of course not. It is symbolic as is the mark of the beast. As the mark of the beast is symbolic, “in” or “on” is not relevant but for the sake of clearing up this misconception, we will discuss this speculation that scripture says is not allowed or necessary. Below you will find three of the scriptures concerned. The Strong’s number for the word that the KJV Bible has translated as “in” is G1909 and I have given the Thayer definition below as it is easier to understand. You will note that the word “in” does not even qualify for a mention.

Thayer Definition: G1909 epi 1) upon, on, at, by, before. 2) of position, on, at, by, over, against. 3) to, over, on, at, across, against.

The Greek word 1909 “epi” means “upon or on” and you will also note that exactly the same Greek word (1909) is used in all these verses and the KJV Bible actually did get it correct in just one place in the latter part of Revelation 20:4. There you will note they translated exactly the same Greek word “1909” as “upon” which is correct.

Revelation 13:16 “And2532 he causeth4160 all,3956 both small3398 and2532 great,3173 (2532) rich4145 and2532 poor,4434, (2532) free1658 and2532 bond,1401 to2443 receive1325, 846 a mark5480 in1909 their848 right1188 hand,5495 or2228 in1909 their848 foreheads:3359″

Revelation 14:9 “And2532 the third5154 angel32 followed190 them,846 saying3004 with1722 a loud3173 voice,5456 If any man1536 worship4352 the3588 beast2342 and2532 his848 image,1504 and2532 receive2983 his mark5480 in1909 his848 forehead,3359 or2228 in1909 his848 hand,5495″

Revelation 20:4 “And2532 I saw1492 thrones,2362 and2532 they sat2523 upon1909 them,846 and2532 judgment2917 was given1325 unto them:846 and2532 I saw the3588 souls5590 of them that were beheaded3990 for1223 the3588 witness3141 of Jesus,2424 and2532 for1223 the3588 word3056 of God,2316 and2532 which3748 had not3756 worshiped4352 the3588 beast,2342 neither3777 his846 image,1504 neither2532, 3756 had received2983 his mark5480 upon1909 their848 foreheads,3359 or2532 in1909 their848 hands;5495 and2532 they lived2198 and2532 reigned936 with3326 Christ5547 a thousand5507 years.2094″

Matthew 6:10 “Thy4675 kingdom932 come.2064 Thy4675 will2307 be done1096 in1909 earth,1093 as5613 it is in1722 heaven.3772″

You will note that the translators of the KJV Bible made this mistake in more than one place. In Matthew 6:10 from the Lord’s prayer, we find it should be “ON” Earth not “IN” Earth. Almost all other translations got this right as they did also in reference to on hand or on forehead. Note the NKJV Bible translation below which has it translated correctly.

Revelation 14:9 “Then a third angel followed them, saying with a loud voice, “If anyone worships the beast and his image, and receives his mark on his forehead or on his hand,

One could say that this still does not rule out a microchip. The fact is the Bible does not specifically say at all what the mark is. It does not say it is a chip implant, a barcode or some card system or anything else. Without reasonably clear scriptural support, it is all speculation. We are however given some clear clues on what it is related to. So what information do we have that might indicate that it is not a microchip? Look at the verses again that reference the mark.

Revelation 14:9 “…If any man worship the beast and his image, and receive his mark” Revelation 14:11 “…who worship the beast and his image, and whosoever receiveth the mark of his name.” Revelation 15:2 “…and over his image, and over his mark, and over the number of his name…” Revelation 16:2 “…which had the mark of the beast, and upon them which worshipped his image.” Revelation 19:20 “…the mark of the beast, and them that worshipped his image…

All these verse are associated with the beast (Catholic Church) or its representative (the Pope). It is the MARK of the Catholic Church. Is technology the mark of the Catholic Church? Not at all. It’s possible that microchip implants or some other type of technology might be used to control buying and selling but technology does not fit the mark of the beast given the above verses. The Catholic Church has enforced many things by death over the centuries but it was never technology, it was ALWAYS their religious viewpoint that was enforced by death and Revelation says that it will be again.

One time (Revelation 14:11) it’s called “the mark of His NameTwo times (Revelation 16:2; 19:20) it’s called “the mark of the BeastThree times (Revelation 14:9; 15:2; 20:4) it’s called “His Mark.”

So we know that the mark is associated somehow with his name and his number and the number 666 is the number of a man. As seen previously, the Pope fits this criterion perfectly. We now have at least three things which lean away from the theory of it just being a chip or similar technology. What we also know is that “buying and selling” is NOT just for those that have the MARK, but ALSO for those that have the NAME of the beast, or the NUMBER of his name.

Revelation 13:17-18 “And that no man might buy or sell, save he that had the mark, or the name of the beast, or the number of his name. 18 Here is wisdom. Let him that has understanding count the number of the beast: for it is the number of a man; and his number is Six hundred threescore and six. [666]

This is not just an issue of some symbolic mark which we will give even more scriptural evidence supporting this soon. The very clear issue is also not to receive their mark or their name or the number of his name. Revelation 13:17 clearly shows THREE reasons why a person can’t “buy or sell.” It says, “And that no man might buy or sell, save he…

One time (Revelation 14:11) it’s called “the mark of His NameTwo times (Revelation 16:2; 19:20) it’s called “the mark of the BeastThree times (Revelation 14:9; 15:2; 20:4) it’s called “His Mark.”

So even if you do NOT have the “MARK OF THE BEAST” but you have the NAME or the NUMBER you are still able to “buy or sell.” When all these factors are taken into consideration, it shows that the mark itself cannot be some form of technology. The evidence is clearly that it is symbolic and is to do with the fact that they changed God’s laws on worship, which Daniel 7:25 says they would. They deleted the second Commandment (idolatry) and changed the fourth (Sabbath) and as we have unmistakably seen, those that do NOT get the mark worship God only and keep His Commandments.

Do both these laws relate to the mark? Another way we can still incur the wrath of God is by not just having the mark of the beast but also for worshipping it. Does everyone remember what happened when Pope John died? Literally millions of people lined up for days to look upon a dead Pope. Never before have I ever seen one man get so much worship let alone a DEAD man. It dominated television for weeks and got the attention of the whole world. Look at what the latter part of Revelation 13:3 says, “…and all the world wondered after the beast.” Isn’t this what happened when the Pope died? The entire world wondered after the Catholic Church at this time?

Isn’t the Pope the only religious person that the President of the United States has ever bowed down too and kneeled before? Isn’t this idolatry at its worst? No man should be worshipped. Revelation 14:9 shows the consequences are just the same if you worship the Catholic Church or its representative the Pope. This also takes away from the issue of the mark and the number as being associated with a computer chip or any other form of technology as worship of the Pope receives exactly the same consequences from God.

Revelation 14:9 “And the third angel followed them, saying with a loud voice, If any man worship the beast and his image, and receive his mark in his forehead, or in his hand,” (Remember the forehead and hand is also symbolic. The forehead represents the mind and the hand represents ones actions. (Exodus 13:9, 16; Deuteronomy 6:8; 11:18)

What do we actually know for certain about 666 and the mark of the beast? 1) We know the mark comes from the beast, which represents the Roman Catholic Church.

2) We also know that 666 is the number of a man (Revelation 13:18) which is associated or a representative of the beast. (Roman Catholic Church) This can only be the Pope and as shown earlier meets the criteria perfectly. See the origin of 666 the number of the beast.

3) Those who worship Jesus Christ as Creator DO NOT get the mark. Revelation 14:7 “Saying with a loud voice, Fear God, and give glory to him; for the hour of his judgment is come: and worship him that made heaven, and earth, and the sea, and the fountains of waters.” Remember the Sabbath is a memorial of creation and sign that it is God alone we worship. Note also how Revelation 14:7 above references the fourth Commandment which the Greek Lexicons also point out. Exodus 20:11 “For in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: wherefore the LORD blessed the Sabbath day, and hallowed it.

4) Those that worship the Beast DO receive the mark and God’s wrath. Revelation 14:9 “And the third angel followed them, saying with a loud voice, If any man worship the beast and his image, and receive his mark in his forehead, or in his hand,

5) Those that keep God’s Commandments DO NOT receive the mark and avoid the wrath of God. Revelation 14:12 “Here is the patience of the saints: here are they that keep the Commandments of God, and the faith of Jesus.

Are you beginning to see a pattern here? If you worship God and keep His Commandments you DO NOT receive the mark or the wrath of God. If you worship the beast, which breaks God’s second and fourth Commandment, then you DO receive their mark and incur the wrath of God. One group keeps the Commandments and the other group does not.

In Daniel 3:16-28 Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego were thrown into the fiery furnace but God was with them through the persecution and in this case took them safely through it. They refused to disobey God’s second Commandment. There is obviously a strong link here to obedience to God and who we Worship in regards to the mark. Remember it was the breaking of God’s Commandments that got this world into this mess in the first place.

The Bible often refers to times of patience with times of suffering. Revelation 13:10 speaks of the “patient of the saints” after they endured the 1260 years of persecution from the Roman Catholic Church which is the first Beast. As stated earlier, 50 – 150 million Christians were tortured and murdered. Revelation 14:12 is the verse following the mark of the beast warning, and the “patience of the saints” as those who will endure through the second time of persecution from the Roman Catholic Church and still keep God’s Commandments. These are those who truly trust and love God.

Revelation 13:10 “He that leadeth into captivity shall go into captivity: he that killeth with the sword must be killed with the sword. Here is the patience and the faith of the saints.

In Revelation 14:9-11 we see in what we will call group one, the consequences for those who worshipped the beast and so received the mark of the beast. Remember this is the mark of the Catholic Church. And what is their mark?

Revelation 14:9-11 “And the third angel followed them, saying with a loud voice, If any man worship the beast and his image, and receive his mark in his forehead, or in his hand, 10 The same shall drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which is poured out without mixture into the cup of his indignation; and he shall be tormented with fire and brimstone in the presence of the holy angels, and in the presence of the Lamb: 11 And the smoke of their torment ascendeth up for ever and ever: and they have no rest day nor night, who worship the beast and his image, and whosoever receiveth the mark of his name.

Again we see how God’s people will have to endure a time of tribulation from the Beast yet again by the statement “Here is the patience of the saints.” You will note in the next consecutive verse we see in what we will now call group two, a very special characteristic of this group compared to group one in which group two keep the Commandments of God despite the persecution for not worshipping the beast or receiving their mark. These are truly God’s faithful children.

Revelation 14:12 “Here is the patience of the saints: here are they that keep the Commandments of God, and the faith of Jesus.

The Papacy enforced Sunday worship through the dark ages and persecuted millions of Christians that they called heretics. Revelation 13:11-18 tells us the second beast will give power back to the first beast and force all to worship the first beast (Papacy). They deleted the second Commandment and they want our worship which breaks this Commandment. They mock Protestants today for keeping their day rather than God’s and they changed the Sabbath and murdered millions the first time, until they received a deadly wound (Revelation 13:3) in 1798 when Napoleon’s General Berthier put the Papacy out of action. Verse 3 also says that this wound will be healed. For the wound to be fully healed they need to be as they were before the wound. This was when they were persecuting millions of Christians as heretics falsely. The Bible also clearly says that they are coming back. (Revelation 13:11-12) Do you think they will do it again given that chance? If we really think the Papacy won’t enforce Sunday worship again as they did before then we are very much dreaming. If we obey the Catholic Church and worship on their day, we are again breaking one of God’s Commandments. But not only that, it is the Commandment that is SIGN that defines who we belong to and DO worship.

Will Sunday laws really be Re-Enacted?

The first Sunday law was enforced by Emperor Constantine in March, 321 A.D. when he joined the Roman Catholic Church. The big question is, will history repeat itself? The Bible says yes. The following is the historical quote of this first Sunday Law. “On the venerable Day of the Sun let the magistrates and people residing in cities rest, and let all workshops be closed.” Source: Codex Justinianus, lib. 3, tit. 12, 3; trans. in Philip Schaff, History of the Christian Church, Vol.3 (5th ed.; New York: Scribner, 1902), p.380, note 1.

The following quote informs us why this first Sunday law was enacted and it has nothing to with any instruction noted from scripture but was done as a result of paganism that entered the Church through Constantine. Constantine joined the Church as a result of what he believed to be divine vision of a cross in the sky which had accompanying words. As a result he marched his pagan army through the Jordon river claiming they were now baptized. They went in dry pagans and came out wet pagans. You will note the change was done entirely in favour of Sun worship. “The Church made a sacred day of Sunday … largely because it was the weekly festival of the sun; for it was a definite Christian policy to take over the pagan festivals endeared to the people by tradition, and to give them a Christian significance.” Source: Arthur Weigall, The Paganism in Our Christianity, p. 145. Copyright 1928 by G. p. Putnam’s Sons, New York.

After Constantine’s first Sunday law, the Roman Catholic Church continued enforcing Sunday law in Europe for more than a further 1,000 years. Sunday laws were also enforced in England for centuries. Amazingly, this practice was continued in colonial America. In the 1600s, if you lived in Massachusetts, Virginia, or Connecticut, you were required by law to attend church on Sunday. Disobedience was punished by heavy fines, whipping, confinement in a cage, and in some cases, even by death. Hence colonial Protestant America still followed Constantine and the Catholic Church in the uniting of church and state, and enforcing Sunday laws.

The American Revolution resulted in complete separation from England and in the forming of a new nation. The American Constitution and the Bill of Rights fully established the doctrine of religious freedom. The First Amendment now denies the right of government to enforce religion. The Statue of Liberty at the entrance to New York harbour remains a monument against Rome and against the history of religious persecution in Europe. So in the United States Church is separate from the state. Both have their place and both remain free. Yet history reveals that Protestant America has never completely cut loose from the City of Seven Hills, from the Vatican itself.

On May 21, 1888, a New Hampshire Christian senator introduced the following bill into the fiftieth Congress, “Be it enacted by the Senate and the House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, that no person, or corporation, or the agent, servant, or the employee of any person or corporation, shall perform or authorize to be performed any secular work … on the first day of the week, commonly known as the Lord’s day” (The National Sunday Law, Arguments of Alonzo T. Jones before the United States Senate Committee on Education and Labor at Washington, D.C., December 13, 1888. 1889, p. v.). The whole purpose of this bill was to produce enforced Sunday keeping nationwide, and this proposed legislation had the support of Christian Churches across America. But this was just groundwork for future legislation and the Blair Sunday bill was finally ruled unconstitutional, and it died in committee. Watch a re-enactment of this Sunday Law Debate.

Bible prophecy predicts that what happened in Europe leading to the forming of the Beast power that resulted in 1260 dark years of Papal rule will eventually happen in America leading to the “image of the beast.” Rome was disintegrating In the fourth century and Constantine decided that the solution to the problem was to unite the government of Caesar with the Roman Catholic Church and to enforce the keeping of Sunday. Something similar will happen again. During some future crisis that will result in people becoming very religious, Protestant America will conclude that the only solution to the national emergency will be to unite the Church with the federal government and enforce the keeping of Sunday.

Pope John Paul II issued an extensive pastoral letter on May 31, 1998, Dies Domini (The Day of the Lord), which contained a passionate appeal for the revival of Sunday observance. The Pope said the prevailing neglect of Sunday reflects a spiritual crisis inside the Catholic Church and within Christianity in general. Notice his words: “The Lord’s Day has structured the history of the Church through two thousand years: how could we think that it will not continue to shape the future?” Shockingly, the Pope then urged world governments to enforce Sunday laws! “In the particular circumstances of our own time, Christians will naturally strive to ensure that civil legislation respects their duty to keep Sunday holy.” Such statements are right in line with this official Vatican position, “Christians should seek recognition of Sundays and the Church’s holy days as legal holidays” (Catechism of the Catholic Church, p. 528. 1994.)

The founder of the Christian Coalition Pat Robertson also shares this view. In his best selling book, The New World Order, he correctly emphasizes the need for America to come back to God. His book envisions a time when this will occur. But he also writes: “The next obligation that a citizen of God’s world order owes is to himself. ‘Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy,’ is a command for the personal benefit of each citizen. … Only when people are permitted to rest from their labors, to meditate on God, to consider His way, to dream of a better world can there be progress and genuine human betterment … Laws in America that mandated a day of rest from incessant commerce have been nullified as a violation of the separation of church and state” (Pat Robertson, The New World Order, p. 236. 1991).

Pat Robertson is envisioning an America that has returned to God. As part of this new world order, he also sees an America that is keeping the Sabbath, but by the Sabbath, he in fact means Sunday. He then looks back to the days of colonial America when Sunday was enforced by law. He wants to see this again. He says what is stopping Sunday laws from being enforced is the separation of church and state, which, he has concluded, is really a doctrine of the liberal left. This is a mistake. The founding fathers separated government and religion as a reaction to the Church of Rome and in favour of inalienable rights. As we have seen, the Catholic Church is against the separation of Church and state and is in favour of Sunday laws. When Protestants attack the separation of Church and state and at the same time seek for Sunday laws, “They know not what they do.” What they will be doing is lining up with the Catholic Church and preparing the way for the image of the beast and for the enforcement of their mark.

Those who fail to learn the lessons of history are condemned to repeat its mistakes.” It already happened in Europe. The Roman Empire was falling apart, so Constantine decided to unite the government of Caesar with the Roman Catholic Church and to enforce the keeping of Sunday. This helped form the beast, and it will happen again in America. Our country is now sinking in the quicksand of sin, and immorality is raging out of control. Like the approaching footsteps of a midnight thief, the final crisis is coming. In a soon coming dramatic hour of desperation, prophecy predicts America will reject over two hundred years of freedom. Sincere, yet misguided Christians will take the reins of government. The appropriate separation of government and religion will disappear as Protestant America forms an image of the Roman Catholic Church. In a final attempt to bring America back to God, Sunday observance will once again be enforced by law. But this time, the enforcement will be universal. Protestants, Catholics, and even the apparitions of Mary, will all be united in this. The reasons will sound good and the movement will look Christian, and it will seem like our only hope. But deep in the midst of these turbulent waters will be Satan himself. He will have finally pulled off his ultimate masterpiece of delusion. He will have led Christians, in the name of the Lamb, to enforce the mark of the beast. Those who refuse to cooperate will not be able to buy or sell. This is not some fictitious issue and it will apply to you and me.

When the mark of the beast is finally enforced by law all around the world, the Good Shepherd will call His faithful sheep and during the fateful crisis, there will be sincere Protestants and Catholics everywhere who have never really understood the important issues. The Spirit of the Almighty God will speak to their hearts. The three angels’ messages will be read in print, and will heard from television, radio, the pulpit, the World Wide Web and even via satellite. People will have a chance to learn the real truth. Christ will be lifted up and His cross will be seen, and the actual cause of His death will be more deeply understood by Christians. Why did Jesus die? The Bible says, “Christ died for our sins.” 1 Corinthians 15:3. What is sin? “Sin is the transgression of the law.” 1 John 3:4. Simply put the pieces together. Jesus Christ died because we have broken the Ten Commandments, including the forgotten one, which says, “Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy.” Exodus 20:8. Therefore Jesus Christ our Creator also died because we broke His very significant Sabbath day!

During this final crisis surrounding this 666 and the mark of the beast issue, it will be understood that Jesus Christ is the Saviour of the world and the Maker of all life. The Sabbath will be presented as the special day that it is, which uniquely reveals Jesus and His love for His own horribly lost world. Jesus Christ is the Lord of the Sabbath (Matthew 12:8). People will then be brought face to face with the core issue that will ultimately decide their destiny. Will they worship Jesus Christ, the Creator and keep the Commandments of God? Or will they worship the beast and his image and receive his mark? Humanity will have reached the final crossroads. Heaven’s clock will have struck the midnight moment. The last hour of decision will have come. During those closing seconds, the seventh day Sabbath will represent our allegiance to Jesus Christ, the Maker of all life, while Sunday will represent allegiance to Rome and their agent the devil himself.

Jesus said, “If you love me, keep my Commandments.” John 14:15. The whole heart of the issue is our love for Jesus our Lord and saviour. Out of sincere appreciation for His grace and for the magnitude of His sacrifice for the sins of all humanity, Jesus Christ’s true followers will fully take their stand on the Lord’s side, no matter what the cost. The three angels’ messages will be and are clear. Those who accept the gospel and embrace the Lamb, worship the Creator, and keep His Commandments will not receive the mark of the beast. This is what the Bible says! The third angel’s message describes God’s final apocalyptic people in the following way. “Here is the patience [endurance] of the saints: here are they that keep the commandments of God, and the faith of Jesus.” Revelation 14:12. Parenthesis added.

During planet Earth’s last and final crisis, when the mark of the beast is globally enforced by law and after someone truly sees the real core issue but still chooses to believe in Papal Rome’s secular Sunday instead of the Holy Bible Sabbath of Jesus Christ, then and only then, will God Almighty look into the inner recesses of that persons mind and consider that person to have the mark in the forehead. Those who don’t believe in Sunday keeping, but still choose to go along with it because of the intense economic and social pressure to conform, they will receive the mark in their right hand. Those who endure and reject the use of force and choose to follow the Lamb, keeping the Sabbath no matter what the cost will be revealing their supreme loyalty to the great Creator of heaven and earth. They have the name of God in their foreheads.

Remember the importance of worship in regards to the mark of the beast? We can see conclusively that worshipping God and not the beast and keeping His Commandments is related to the mark of the beast (Revelation 14:12) and this would also include the second Commandment. The Sabbath defines who we DO worship which the Papal Church changed and say is a MARK of their authority and hence the central issue. But where else in the Bible do we find such an example?

In the third chapter of Daniel, King Nebuchadnezzar makes an image of gold with the dimensions of 60 cubits high, plus 6 cubits wide and 6 deep [666] that he commanded all to bow down and worship. Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego would not disobey God’s Commandment and refused to obey the king. The king therefore threw them into a blazing furnace that was heated seven times hotter than usual. The King in amazement said, “Why do I see four men walking around in the fire? They are not tied up, and they show no sign of being hurt and the fourth is like that of the Son of God. Praise the God of Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego! They disobeyed my command and risked their lives rather than bow down and worship any god except their own. There is no other god who can rescue like this.” As a result, the king promoted them to higher positions in Babylon.

Here is the perfect and most beautiful example of true obedience to God. This is an example God has given us, which is a parallel of the mark of the beast issue in Revelation Chapters 13 and 14 that demonstrates how we should respond in Earths final days, that is, we should obey God rather than man and not worship the Beast or his image. So do we worship on the Pope’s day specified by the beast and receive the mark of the beast, or on the day God commanded and receive the Mark of God being His Seal? Do you love the “praise of men” more than the praise of God? Or do you have the FAITH and the COURAGE to obey God’s Commandments, even if you were to lose your job and perhaps some of your friends or even your own life as Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego were prepared to do? The choice should be simple.

666 Mark of the Beast – Page 3 – Summary, Tables and Conclusion

666 Mark of the Beast

Who is the Beast and what is their Mark?

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Summary and Revision on 666 and the Mark of the Beast

After one has heard so many theories on what 666 and the mark of the beast is, when one is told it has to do with worship and obeying God and is especially to do with showing our allegiance to God by keeping His Sabbath and worshipping Him only, many understandably look at you if as if you have lost you mind. Most people are looking for something more complex and sinister. But ask yourself this. Does God care about computer chips and barcodes and all the other theories on 666 and the mark of the beast? Why would He? Where do we get any such indication that this is an issue with God anywhere in the Bible? What if someone held you down and forced this technology upon you. Does this mean that God is going to pour out His most fierce wrath imaginable upon you? Of course not. This is our loving God that forgives the most dreaded sins. So what does God really care about? What is the whole Bible a plan of? What was the whole sanctuary system all about that the Children of Israel had to obey and is continued into the New Testament? What does the whole story of the Old Testament work towards? It is about the first coming of Christ and the whole plan of salvation. So what is it we need to be saved from? The consequences of sin of course. God hates sin and is what the entire theme of the Bible is all about. Saving us from the consequences of sin. This is what is important to God. Not some computer chip. The Mark is symbolic and this should be clear by the fact that God also Seals us with His Mark in our forehead and by the fact that the law is to be a sign upon our HANDS and FOREHEAD. This is not coincidence by any means. Do you really believe it is by chance that the MARK competes for exactly the same locations which symbolize our obedience to God’s law and especially when Revelation shows so distinctly that those who do NOT get the mark keep the Commandments of God?

Deuteronomy 6:5-8 says, “Love the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your strength. 6 These Commandments that I give you today are to be upon your hearts. 7 Impress them on your children. Talk about them when you sit at home and when you walk along the road, when you lie down and when you get up. 8 Tie them as symbols on your HANDS and bind them on your FOREHEADS.

This passage is right after the second reading of the Ten Commandments and as you can see is also shown by verse 5. What does God say is important to Him?

1 John 5:3 “For this is the love of God, that we keep his Commandments: and his Commandments are not grievous.

From Genesis to Revelation we find the entire Word of God primarily centres around the whole plan of salvation. Sin is the issue and especially that one Commandment that defines that it is God we love and worship and give our allegiance to. This is what is truly important to God. He wants our love and obedience and worship and we are also told that He is a jealous God. The issue is unmistakable. That is why Jesus came and died for us. Because of our sin. Before the second coming of Christ, the issue is going to be made clear by God to all, and everyone is going to be given the choice as to whether they effectively give their allegiance to Satan by worshipping on the day he instituted through the Papacy or whether they are going to give their allegiance to God by obeying Him and keeping His Commandments. If you stop and think about it for a moment, you will realize this would be very important to God. For us to know this and yet still worship on a day that the enemy put in place would certainly make God VERY angry. This would be in absolute rebellion against God and His law. Do you really think that this would not incur the full wrath of God? What is the whole duty of man?

Ecclesiastes 12:13 says, “Let us hear the conclusion of the whole matter: Fear God, and keep his Commandments: for this is the whole duty of man.

Who gets to eat from the tree of life in the heavenly city? How many scriptures do we need to see to make us realize the importance of living an obedient and righteous life and that this is the most important issue to God?

Revelation 22:14 “Blessed are they that do his Commandments, that they may have right to the tree of life, and may enter in through the gates into the city.

Does this following verse speak of persecution? Revelation 13:15 “And he had power to give life unto the image of the beast, that the image of the beast should both speak, and cause that as many as would not worship the image of the beast should be killed.

It certainly does and Revelation 14:12 is speaking of those that do not get the Mark while enduring this persecution. The word used is patience but also means and translates to endurance. It means here are those that endure? Endure what? The time of persecution under the Papacy that forced all to obey them during the dark ages or you were tortured and murdered ( watch example video) if you failed to bow down to them and their rules such as their enforced Sunday worship. Read “Foxes book of martyrs” if you want the horrific details. They did it before, they are coming back, and they will enforce it again.

Revelation 14:12 “Here is the patience [endurance] of the saints: here are they that keep the Commandments of God, and the faith of Jesus.” Parentheses are added.

We don’t need to speculate. Revelation 14:7 says worship God who created the heavens and the earth. Verse 8 says Babylon is fallen. This is spiritual Babylon which is the Papacy. Verse 9 says don’t worship the Beast which also refers to the Papacy and we do this by obeying them and keeping their Sunday worship law which they say is a “MARK” of their authority. Verse 10 and 11 informs us of the consequences of worshipping the Papacy by keeping their day of worship in place of God’s and verse 12 says that those who do not get the Mark endure yet another time of persecution under them but still keep God’s Commandments through the faith of Jesus. No speculation! When you know who this beast power is and what they did in the past and that the Bible says they are coming back, it is not hard to see. Just read what is says!

This is historical fact and not fiction. All it requires on our part is to realize that the Seventh day Sabbath is very important to God even if we don’t think the day has any significance. The Word tells us several times that it is a SIGN that we love and worship God. It is a SIGN that it is God that sanctifies us. It is a SIGN that He is our God and that we are His children. It is a SIGN that it is God that makes us Holy. Why do some find this so hard to understand? Jesus also said that not a letter of the law will pass while heaven and earth still exist and this alone nullifies all the misunderstandings and excuses.

The Sabbath is valid from creation to eternity

The Sabbath has existed since creation when God added the 7th day to the week with the one and only purpose of a Sabbath rest. This is the only reason we have a 7 day week. God also blessed and sanctified this day for Holy use. This was done before sin had entered the World and was part of God’s perfect plan. Note also that the word translated “rested” in our English Bibles in Genesis 2:3 is “shabath” in Hebrew which means Sabbath. Here is the word Sabbath right at creation. Saturday is also called the Sabbath in over 105 languages just as it was named at creation. This dates right back to Babel in Genesis 11 where Saturday was recognized as the Sabbath day and was incorporated into the very name of the day. In English we have the Pagan name Saturday. In reference to the future destruction of Jerusalem in 70 A.D., Jesus says, “And pray that your flight may not be in winter or on the Sabbath.” Matthew 24:20. Would Jesus say this if we were not keeping the Sabbath anymore? Of course not! The gospel of Luke states in Luke 23:56 that when the body of Christ was being prepared, “they rested the Sabbath day according to the Commandment.” Luke’s gospel was written 30 to 50 years after the cross and Luke still shows that the Commandment is unchanged. If it were changed, Luke would have undoubtedly told us since it is one of the Commandments. Read Sabbath in the New Testament. What was Paul’s CUSTOM and EXAMPLE while establishing the early Christian Church? Notice in Acts 17:1-2 that this is a Jewish synagogue and that the Jews have all through history, without change, worshipped on Saturday as they still do today. The Jews and Pharisees which Paul was since CHILDHOOD have ALWAYS kept Saturday as the Sabbath. Acts 26:4-5. This is solid proof of Saturday Sabbath keeping AFTER the cross and undoubtedly applies to both Jews and Gentiles. Acts 13:42-44; Acts 18:4. Isaiah also prophesied in Isaiah 66:22-23 that, “For as the new heavens and the new earth, which I will make … and from one Sabbath to another, shall ALL flesh come to worship before me, saith the LORD.” We should of course expect nothing less than this solid evidence since Jesus said that not a letter of the law is going to pass as long as heaven and earth are still here. See misunderstandings on fulfilling the law or the purpose of the Ten Commandments for more on this passage in Matthew chapter five.

The Bible says where there is no law there is no transgression (Romans 4:15) so the Ten Commandments had to exist from the very beginning or Cain could not have been guilty of murder, and since the Sabbath was sanctified and made Holy before sin at creation and the Sabbath is one of the Ten Commandments, it had to be kept by Adam and Eve. It was also kept by Abraham, it was kept in the exodus from Egypt before the Ten Commandments were given, when God tested if His children would keep all the Ten Commandments by seeing if they would keep THE Seventh day as God requested. It was kept by the Jews, it was kept by Jesus, it was kept by Paul, it was kept by the Apostles, it was kept by the early Church by both Jews and Gentiles, and this is also verified by Jesus who showed it would be kept in 70 AD when the temple was destroyed. History also further proves this by the fact that unbiased history sources show that it was still being kept around 90-120 AD where some Christians first changed to Sunday to avoid persecution for Judaism. The official day change began with Constantine in 321 AD in honour of Sun worship and was finalised by the Papacy in 363-364 A.D. The Sabbath was almost murdered out of existence through the dark ages when the Roman Catholic Church ruled as Church and state for those terrible 1260 dark years, and Revelation 12:17 speaks of a remnant of God’s original Church that would arise after these dark ages that Satan would hate and make war with because it would start keeping all of the Ten Commandments of God once again. To top this all off, God showed Isaiah that we will still be keeping the Sabbath in the new Heaven and the New Earth. Here is the Sabbath being kept from creation and throughout all eternity. The Sabbath has never changed and probably never will. See also the History of Sunday Worship for very enlightening information on how Sunday worship began 2000 years B.C. and was the worship of Satan.

Below are some more quotes from the Roman Catholic Church that are about their change of the Sabbath from Saturday to Sunday which explains how Satan has deceived most Churches into ignorantly accepting Sunday as the Sabbath.

Does the Bible Support the Change to Sunday?   “For example, nowhere in the Bible do we find that Christ or the Apostles ordered that the Sabbath be changed from Saturday to Sunday. We have the commandment of God given to Moses to keep holy the Sabbath day, that is the 7th day of the week, Saturday. Today most Christians keep Sunday because it has been revealed to us by the [Roman Catholic] church outside the Bible.” — Catholic Virginian, October 3, 1947, p. 9, article “To Tell You the Truth.”

“Is not every Christian obliged to sanctify Sunday and to abstain on that day from unnecessary servile work? Is not the observance of this law among the most prominent of our sacred duties? But you may read the Bible from Genesis to Revelation, and you will not find a single line authorizing the sanctification of Sunday. The Scriptures enforce the religious observance of Saturday, a day which we never sanctify.” — James Cardinal Gibbons, The Faith of Our Fathers (1917 edition), p. 72-73 (16th Edition, p 111; 88th Edition, p. 89).

Who Made Sunday Holy?   “Question – Which is the Sabbath day? “Answer – Saturday is the Sabbath day. “Question – Why do we observe Sunday instead of Saturday? “Answer – We observe Sunday instead of Saturday because the Catholic Church, in the Council of Laodicea (A.D. 364), transferred the solemnity from Saturday to Sunday.” — Rev. Peter Geiermann, C.S.S.R., The Convert’s Catechism of Catholic Doctrine, p. 50, 3rd edition, 1957.

“Perhaps the boldest thing, the most revolutionary change the Church ever did, happened in the first century. The holy day, the Sabbath, was changed from Saturday to Sunday. ‘The day of the Lord’ was chosen, not from any direction noted in the Scriptures, but from the (Catholic) Church’s sense of its own power…People who think that the Scriptures should be the sole authority, should logically become 7th Day Adventists, and keep Saturday holy.” — St. Catherine Church Sentinel, Algonac, Michigan, May 21, 1995.

Whose Day of Worship is Sunday?   “They [the Protestants] deem it their duty to keep the Sunday holy. Why? Because the Catholic Church tells them to do so. They have no other reason…The observance of Sunday thus comes to be an ecclesiastical law entirely distinct from the divine law of Sabbath observance…The author of the Sunday law…is the Catholic Church.” — Ecclesiastical Review, February 1914.

“It is well to remind the Presbyterians, Baptists, Methodists, and all other Christians, that the Bible does not support them anywhere in their observance of Sunday. Sunday is an institution of the Roman Catholic Church, and those who observe the day observe a commandment of the Catholic Church.” — Priest Brady, in an address reported in The News, Elizabeth, New Jersey, March 18, 1903.

Who Do We Reverence by Keeping Sunday Holy?   “I have repeatedly offered $1,000 to anyone who can prove to me from the Bible alone that I am bound to keep Sunday holy. There is no such law in the Bible. It is a law of the holy Catholic Church alone. The Bible says, ‘Remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy.’ The Catholic Church says: ‘No. By my divine power I abolish the Sabbath day and command you to keep holy the first day of the week.’ And lo! The entire civilized world bows down in a reverent obedience to the command of the holy Catholic Church.” — father T. Enright, C.S.S.R. of the Redemptoral College, Kansas City, in a lecture at Hartford, Kansas, February 18, 1884, printed in History of the Sabbath, p. 802. Hover here for a document clip or select for full original image.

“It was the Catholic church which…has transferred this rest to Sunday in remembrance of the resurrection of our Lord. Therefore the observance of Sunday by the Protestants is an homage they pay, in spite of themselves, to the authority of the (Catholic) church.” — Monsignor Louis Segur, Plain Talk About the Protestantism of Today, p. 213.

666 and the Mark of the Beast in the Old Testament

It is interesting to note that out of the 404 verses of Revelation, 276 of them are from the Old Testament. This is how we understand Bible prophecy; by comparing scripture with scripture. To help give us a better understanding of 666 and the mark of the beast issue, God has given us an Old Testament story that mirrors the mark of the beast issue and shows us how we need to respond and precisely reveals what the real issue is truly all about without the need for any speculation.

There is no doubt that it is about whom we give our allegiance to by who we love, obey and worship. I am sure that most of you know by now that there are two Commandments that define worship. The first is the second Commandment on idolatry which defines who or what we should not worship. The other is the fourth Commandment which is about who we do love and worship. As stated earlier, I do not believe for one moment that it is coincidence that these are the two Commandments that the beast power changed. Revelation 14:7 says we should worship God and this is about the fourth Commandment the Sabbath. It is very interesting to note that this verse also quotes part of the fourth Commandment and is not found elsewhere in the Word of God. Revelation 14:9-11 says who we should not worship which in this case is the beast power, being the Papal system. We are told that those who refuse to worship the beast power will be persecuted and even face death. This is the meaning of the phrase, “Here is the patience of the saints” found at the beginning of Revelation 14:12. As previously noted, the word patience also translates to endurance; in other words here are those that endure. Those that refuse to worship the beast power will need to have much patience as they endure a time of persecution because they refuse to worship by their rules and instead keep the Commandments of God and worship Him only. This is why the remainder of Revelation 14:12 quotes that those that endure keep the Commandments of God and the faith of Jesus. They worship God only and keep His Sabbath and do not worship the beast power which is idolatry.

So what about this Old Testament example? This example was given previously but let’s just revise this because of its importance and understanding this example God has given us. In Daniel 3, King Nebuchadnezzar made a gold image with dimensions equal to 666 that he commanded all to worship. Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego would not disobey God’s Commandment and refused to obey the king. Since they refused, the king threw them into a blazing furnace heated seven times hotter than usual. The King in amazement said, “Why do I see four men walking around in the fire? They are not tied up, and they show no sign of being hurt and the fourth is like that of the Son of God. Praise the God of Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego! They disobeyed my orders and risked their lives rather than bow down and worship any god except their own. There is no other god who can rescue like this.” As a result, the king promoted them to higher positions in Babylon. This is a beautiful example of the obedience God desires from us and what is required of us during the time of tribulation when the mark of the beast issue is finally enforced. You will note from the table below that this is indeed the perfect parallel of the mark of the beast issue in Revelation Chapters 13 and 14 that wonderfully demonstrates how we do need to respond in the end times. So what is it we should do? We should obey God and Worship Him only and not Worship the Beast or his image and keep God’s Commandments even if it means enduring tribulation or facing death.

Now that this issue has been made very clear; keep in mind that it is especially about who we love, obey and WORSHIP and keeping the Commandments of God. It is extremely important not to forget that the Sabbath is not just about resting but is a SIGN that it is God we WORSHIP. Observe the parallels in this passage in regards to the mark of the beast issue.

Perfect Parallels between 666 and the Mark of the Beast and Daniel chapter three
Daniel 3:1 Powerful kingdom in control Revelation 13:11
Daniel 3:1 Makes an image Revelation 13:14
Daniel 3:5 Image Worship is commanded Revelation 13:15
Daniel 3:6 Those who refuse to Worship the image are threatened with death Revelation 13:15
Daniel 3:4 It applies to all nations and people Revelation 13:16
Daniel 3:1 Size of the metal man/image and the number of the man is 666. When width only is given, the depth is the same as the width Revelation 13:18
Daniel 3:18 The choice is about who we Worship. That is to Worship God only or worship a false image Revelation 14:7 Revelation 14:9-11
Daniel 3:18 Should Worship God only Revelation 14:7
Daniel 3:18 Keeps the Commandments of God Revelation 14:12
Daniel 3:17 Prepared to endure tribulation rather than break the Commandments of God Revelation 14:12
Deuteronomy 6:5-8 Deuteronomy 11:18 God’s Ten Commandments are a sign on our HAND and FOREHEAD which is the same location as the mark of the beast Revelation 13:16

Satan’s counterfeit system of Worship

To further demonstrate that the issue of 666 and the mark of the beast revolves around worship, the following explanations and the table below has been added to even better illustrate this fact. As we have already demonstrated, the scriptures show that Satan wants to be worshipped as God. If Satan asked us to worship him, would we do it? Of course not. Does Satan know this? Of course he does. So what Satan does, is he gets himself a front man and props him up by giving him his power, throne and great authority. (Revelation 13:2) So when the beast power is being worshipped, who is really being worshipped? Satan himself! This is called worship by representation.

Jesus said in John 14:6 “Jesus saith unto him, I am the way, the truth, and the life: no man cometh unto the Father, but by me.” So how do we worship the Father in spirit and in truth? We worship Jesus as He is our representative before the throne and the Father gave His power, throne and great authority to Jesus. As Jesus said in Matthew 28:18 “And Jesus came and spoke unto them, saying, All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth.” So the way we have access to the father is by Jesus Christ. We worship Jesus in spirit and in truth and that worship is transferred to the Father because He is the representative of the Father. Jesus also said in John 14:9 “Jesus saith unto him, Have I been so long time with you, and yet have you not known me, Philip? he that has seen me has seen the Father; and how sayest you then, Show us the Father?

We find in the book of Revelation that Satan counterfeits many things. Example: We find a counterfeit Godhead. We of course have the Father, Son and the Holy Spirit and in the book of Revelation you have the dragon which is Satan, the false prophet and the beast. Note that the Bible does not use the word trinity but Godhead. The trinity doctrine originated with Tertullian (160-225 A.D), and was finalized by the Roman Catholic Church in the council of Nicea in 325 AD that says the Father is God, the Son is God, the Holy Spirit is God, yet there are not three Gods but one God. See the Holy Trinity of God for more on this very misunderstood topic.

There are many more things that Satan counterfeits of God eg. When God brought His chosen people out of the land of Egypt, He performed many miracles like turning Aaron’s rod into a serpent, changing rivers to blood and bringing up frogs to cover the land. The pharaoh’s magicians through the power of Satan were also able to counterfeit all these same miracles. (Exodus 7:10-11; 7:20-22; 8:6-7)

In Job 1:16 Satan burned up Job’s sheep and servants with “fire from heaven” and in Job 1:19, Satan used a “great wind” to bring down a house killing the occupants and in Job 2:7, Satan smote Job with “sore boils from the sole of his foot unto his crown.” If Satan has power to change rods to serpents, change rivers to blood, bring up frogs to cover the land, control the weather, bring down fire from the heavens (see also Revelation 13:13) and inflict illness, then he can certainly heal people. Note Satan needed God’s permission to inflict illness on Job. (Job 1:12; 2:6) So we know God heals and Satan counterfeits, God gives the gift of tongues and Satan has a counterfeit, God has true Prophets and Satan has counterfeit false Prophets, (Matthew 24:11) God is going to seal His people with His mark in their foreheads (Revelation 7:3) and as we already know Satan has a counterfeit mark in the forehead and hand. (Revelation 13:16)

As already stated and seen, the issue of 666 and the mark of the beast is unmistakably about worship and in Revelation we find that Satan has a total counterfeit system of worship in relation to Christ’s ministry in regards to the mission of the beast power and their mark. This can easily be seen with careful exegesis and study. The table below makes it very easy to see Satan’s total counterfeit system of worship. When referencing scriptures, do not forget that a lot of symbolism is involved in the book of Revelation. Where obvious, scripture references have not been given. Many people have been given the mindset that Antichrist means against Christ but Antichrist also means in place of or as a substitute as is the case here in Revelation. So in actual fact, the Antichrist will not appear as a violent opposer but a subtle impostor.

10 Points revealing Satan’s Counterfeit System of Worship
The ministry of Christ This mission of Antichrist
1) Rises from the water to begin ministry (Baptism) Matthew 3:16-17 1) Rises from the water to begin mission Revelation 13:1
2) Resembles Father John 14:9, Hebrews 1:1-3 2) Resembles Satan Revelation 13:1, Revelation 12:3, 9
3) Horns and Crowns Revelation 19:12-16, Revelation 5:5-8 3) Horns and Crowns Revelation 13:1
4) Receives authority from the Father Matthew 28:18 4) Receives authority from the Dragon (Satan) Revelation 13:2
5) Ministry lasts 3.5 years Daniel 9:27 5) Mission lasts prophetic 3.5 years Revelation 13:5
6) Wounded to death on the cross and then resurrected 6) Wounded to death then deadly wound healed Revelation 13:3
7) Receives worship after resurrection 7) Receives worship after deadly wound is healed Revelation 13:3-4
8) Given universal dominion Daniel 7:14 8) Given universal dominion Revelation 13:7
9) Placed the Sabbath on the Seventh day of the week as the true day to achieve the Worship He desires. When kept, it defines it is God we give our allegiance to. 9) Changed the Sabbath to the First day of the week as the counterfeit day so Satan could achieve the Worship he desires. When known, who do we give our allegiance to?
10) God has His seal or Mark Revelation 9:4 10) The beast has its own Mark Revelation 13:16

The Facts:

  1. The Roman Catholic Church changed the Ten Commandments. They deleted the second Commandment (idolatry) and changed the fourth Commandment (the Sabbath). Put simply, the Catholic Church changed the Commandments that tell us who we should and should not worship. 2. God warns us in Daniel 7:25 that the Catholic Church would think to change God’s law. The word “think” is used because in reality you can’t change the law of God. They think they did but as far as God is concerned they have not. 3. The Mark of the Beast is about who we should and should not Worship and hence give our allegiance to. 4. The Second Commandment on idolatry defines who or what we should not Worship. Exodus 20:4-6 5. The Sabbath Commandment defines who we do Worship. Exodus 31:13-17, Romans 2:28-29, Galatians 3:28-29. 6. Revelation 14:7 below references the Sabbath Commandment which the Greek Lexicons also inform us. Exodus 20:11 “For in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea,7. The Catholic Church has at every possible opportunity tried again to enforce Sunday law Worship again. 8. America has Sunday laws in over 36 states that are called blue laws because at present they are not enforced. 9. In Daniel 3, Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego would rather die than break one of God’s Commandments by Worshipping a golden metal man that had dimensions that were 60 cubits high plus 6 cubits wide and 6 deep [666]

Here are all the verses consecutively that refer to the mark of the beast in Revelation 14 which are broken into groups so one can see more clearly exactly what these verses are referring to. Don’t speculate, just read what they say.

This verse says who we should worship which is about the Sabbath and the verse also references the Sabbath Commandment. Revelation 14:7 “Saying with a loud voice, Fear God, and give glory to him; for the hour of his judgment is come: and worship him that made heaven, and earth, and the sea, and the fountains of waters.

These two verses warn us who we should not worship which is to do with the second Commandment. Revelation 14:8-9 “And there followed another angel, saying, Babylon is fallen, is fallen, that great city, because she made all nations drink of the wine of the wrath of her fornication. 9 And the third angel followed them, saying with a loud voice, If any man worship the beast and his image, and receive his mark in his forehead, or in his hand,

These two verses tell of the consequences for worshipping the beast. Revelation 14:10-11 “The same shall drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which is poured out without mixture into the cup of his indignation; and he shall be tormented with fire and brimstone in the presence of the holy angels, and in the presence of the Lamb: 11 And the smoke of their torment ascendeth up for ever and ever: and they have no rest day nor night, who worship the beast and his image, and whosoever receiveth the mark of his name.

And this last verse tells us that those who refuse to bow down to the Catholic Church will once again endure tribulation as in the Dark Ages but still faithfully keep the Commandments of God by the faith of Jesus. Revelation 14:12 “Here is the patience [endurance] of the saints: here are they that keep the Commandments of God, and the faith of Jesus.” Parentheses are added.

Conclusion:

Both Deuteronomy 6:5-8 and Deuteronomy 11:18 say that God’s law is to be a sign upon our hands and forehead. The hands represent our actions i.e. what we do in obeying the law. The forehead represents our heart and mind i.e. our desire to obey God’s law. This is what the Bible shows from Genesis to Revelation to be truly important to God.

Deuteronomy 6:5-8 NIV “Love the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your strength. 6 These Commandments that I give you today are to be upon your hearts. 7 Impress them on your children. Talk about them when you sit at home and when you walk along the road, when you lie down and when you get up. 8 Tie them as symbols on your hands and bind them on your foreheads.

Deuteronomy 11:18 NIV “Fix these words of mine in your hearts and minds; tie them as symbols on your hands and bind them on your foreheads.

Note how Deuteronomy 11:18 above relates fixing the words of God’s Ten Commandment law in our hearts and minds with being a sign upon our hands and forehead.

To even further demonstrate the issue, Hebrews 10:16 informs us that under the New Covenant, God is going to write His law in our hearts and minds.

Hebrews 10:16 “This is the covenant that I will make with them after those days, saith the Lord, I will put my laws into their hearts, and in their minds will I write them;

God has a Mark and the Beast has a counterfeit Mark. The beast changed both of the Commandments that say who we should and should not worship. The mark of the beast passage says who we should and should not worship and those who do not get the mark of the beast keep the Commandments of God. The mark of the beast is on your hands or forehead and keeping God’s Commandments is a sign on our hands and forehead. Your forehead represents your heart and mind, i.e. your desire to obey God’s Commandments. God hates sin and it is His desire that we keep His Commandments. This is what is important to God. 1 John 5:3 “For this is the love of God, that we keep his Commandments: and his Commandments are not grievous.” Satan hates God’s remnant Church that also keep God’s Commandments Revelation 12:17 “And the dragon [Satan] was wroth with the woman [Church], and went to make war with the remnant of her seed, which keep the Commandments of God, and have the testimony of Jesus Christ.” From Genesis to Revelation, over and over again we see that keeping God’s Commandments is what matters.

Watch Prophecy Seminars online

If you have a reasonably fast internet connection and would like to watch an online Prophecy Seminar that reveals who the little horn of Daniel 7 and the Beast of Revelation 13 is that changed the Sabbath to Sunday, you will find Revelation Reveals the Antichrist very enlightening. You may want to start about 17.5 minutes in to bypass singing items etc. You can also watch Histories Greatest Hoax on the truth about the Sabbath and ideally should be watched first. There is also an episode covering 666 and the mark of the beast. If you would like to watch more from this and other Prophecy Seminars you will find the menus here. Be prepared to discover many mind blowing, lost Bible truths.

THE LEADERSHIP–Mwanza Matthews

CONTENTS

HEADINGS PAGE

INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………………2

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT………………………………………………………….……….2

DEFINITION OF A LEADER………………………………………………………….……3

LEADERSHIP STYLE…………………………………………………………………………4

HOW TO BECOME A LEADER…………………………………………….…………….8

CATEGORIES OF PEOPLE IN EVERY ORGANISATION………………………11

KNOW THE TEMPERAMENT OF OTHERS…………………………………………12

QUALITIES DESIRED BY CHRISTIAN LEADERS…………………………………13

OTHER LEADERSHIP QUALITIES……………………………………………………15

EFFICIENCY…………………………………………………………………………..…..16

FOUR BASIC LEVELS THAT MAKE EFFICIENCY A SUCCES…………………17

EVALUATION…………………………………………………………………………………23

THE LEADER AS A CHAIRPERSON…………………………………………………25

RULES TO BE FOLLOWED IN BRINGING ORDER………………………………25

CALLING THE MEETING TO ORDER…………………………………………………27

ROLL CALL……………………………………………………………………………………………..27

INTRODUCTION OF BUSINESS OR OPENING REMARKS……………………29

PRIVILEGE OF SPEAKING IS THROUGH GETTING THE FLOOR…………29

RECAPITULATION/SUMMARISATION………………………………………………31

CLOSINNG REMARKS……………………………………………………………………………………32

TAKING MINUTES OF A MEETING…BY J.L BANDA…………………….………33

IMPORTANCE OF MINUTES……………………………………………………………33

TYPES OF MINUTES……………………………………………..…………………….34

FORMAT…………………………………………………………….…………………..…35

THE LANGUAGE………………………………………………………………………………37

CONCLUSION……………………………………………………….…………………38

PART TWO……………………………………………………………………..…………………39

LEARN HOW TO PREACH GOOD SERMON…BY CARL……………………39

REFERENCES………………………………………………………………………….52

INTRODUCTION

This small book is about leadership, it shows how leadership can be managed by everyone who wants to lead people in a very special way. Otherwise I (Mwanza Matthews) have decided to come up with this small book entitled “the leadership” in order to educate my fellow youths who may wish to lead the people in a lovely, cheerfully, knowledgeably and sincerely manner. ACKNOWLEGDEMENT

Firstly I would like to thank Almighty God for making it possible for me to produce this small and educative book. Secondly I would like to express my thanks to my grand parents (Mr. J L and Mrs. E M Banda) who have contributed most to my school issues and to provide me an access to all computers and printers. My humble prayer is that may God continue to bless them with their Children and may God also bless everyone who reads this book.

DEFINITION OF A LEADER

I think it is more important to distinguish the two terms “leader” and “leadership”. Here is the difference:

A leader is a person who influences a group of people towards the achievement of a goal.

WHAT IS LEADERSHIP?

Leadership is an activity of leading a group of people or an organization, leadership involves the following:

Establishing a clear vision

Sharing that vision with others so that they will follow willingly.

Providing the information, knowledge and methods to realize that vision.

Coordinating and balancing the conflicting interests of all members and stakeholders.

LEADERSHIP STYLE There are many styles of leadership three of them are discussed below:

Authoritarian leadership style

This leadership style is also called ‘autocratic’ is characterized by individual control over all decisions and little input from group members. Autocratic leaders typically make choices based on their own ideas and judgments and rarely accept advice from followers. Autocratic leadership involves absolute, authoritarian control over a group.

Characteristics of Autocratic leadership

Some of the primary characteristics of autocratic leadership include;

Little or no input from group members.

Leaders make the decisions.

Group leaders dictate all the work methods and process.

Group members are rarely trusted with decisions or important tasks.

Laissez-faire leadership style

Although this is accepted as a leadership style, in reality it is not a leadership at all. There is no concern for direction control task accomplishment for inter-personal relationships.

The laissez-faire leader is just in a position and by design or by default simply does nothing. No procedures are established and everyone is lent alone; no one attempts to influence anyone else.

Democratic leadership style

The democratic leader tries to find a balance between laissez-faire and authoritarian leadership style. The democratic leader provides direction in task and social leadership functions. This, however, must be done carefully in order to avoid dominating the group with personal views. It is believed that it is very difficult to lead without exerting some kind of control. Leadership regardless of the style is situational in that the situation demands different action, for example: if a house is on fire, a democratic style is not appropriate. The situation calls for an authoritarian style, by someone who knows what needs to be done and how to do it quickly. This, however, does not provide an excuse to act in an authoritarian made all the time.

The question is-which leadership style is the best? Perhaps this can be answered by considering various factors. Steward Tubbs (1989; 158) in his book presents the following factors and says they will determine the type of leadership required in a given situation:

The quality of the group output.

The time required to accomplish the task.

The satisfaction of the group members.

The absenteeism of the group members.

The independence developed in group members.

White and Lippit,(1968) also allude to the fact that:

Quality of group output is better under democratic leadership.

Group members’ satisfaction is greater under democratic leadership style.

Democratic leadership style produces less absenteeism.

Democratic leadership style fosters more independence.

HOW TO BECOME A LEADER

Use initiative to act on opportunities. Become a leader before other people view you as one. Healthy organizations reward those who take the lead, not just those with formal management roles.

Take responsibility for own objectives: set priorities.

Display a “can do” attitude even in demanding situations. Try to solve problems, rather than to pass them on to other people. First answer is ‘yes, I’ll make it happen’

Go the extra mile” when asked to do tasks. Go beyond your job description. Do work that gets you noticed.

Show enthusiasm: this will be noticed and you will eventually be rewarded.

Take ownership of problems: anticipate potential problems, take pre-emptive action and act quickly to resolve problems.

Introduce improvements to the way things are done.

Develop innovative practices. Value innovative thinking.

Learn new skills that will enhance capability.

Common sense is not common!

Always do something unique and respective before other people. Do not be like a dead fish which follows the flow of water, but be like a live fish which moves in an opposite direction of water flow.

Change your life first

As a leader, you need to do things first in your mind before you present them to your followers. Therefore, you need to change your previous attitude and tune to a new one. However, you can’t change your attitude/life unless you change something you do daily.

As a leader

A leader should be tolerant to some small mistakes/problems within the members. He/she should be focused and stick to the goal/vision. A leader should also be exercising perseverance/endurance in leading the multitude of different kinds of people towards the goal despite of some difficulties.

CATEGORIES OF PEOPLE IN EVERY ORGANIZATION

To make things happen leaders need the active support and committed help of others. Leaders need to know their followers so well so as to be able to use the appropriate style to obtain action and better results.

Clever People: have an extra thought and additional ideas. They tend to think ahead of their leader. As a leader, do not fight them, neither should you feel threatened by their presence. Praise them and encourage their constructive contribution.

Thinking People: these people tend to analyze and question everything you say. Do not exaggerate anything you present. Tell only the truth and say it simple.

Emotional People: these people tend to speak before they digest what has been said. Can move others to action even by their haste promises or pledges. Follow them up quickly before they can change their mind or stay cool, do not make an emotional decision because of them.

Talkative People: these people tend to bring a lot of ideas and suggestion. They tend to sway the meeting . Just be careful not to be led out of topic. Help them to focus on one point under discussion.

The argumentative people : these people they help you as a leader to think before you speak or to do through preparation for your meetings. Avoid being drawn into their arguments. Just look for something you can praise them. When it becomes too much, visit them as individuals using the love of Christ and pray with them so that they can see light in what you are doing.

The self- important people: these people are very cautious of their status and authority in society. Allow them to be where they are on want to be. Try to meet them at their level rather than trying to bring them down to your level.

The sarcastic people-maintain your low profile as a leader, avoid direct revenge if they appear to be disrespectful of your leadership authority. Remember it is the meek and peacemakers that are blessed.

The wheelbarrow type of people : these are type of people who will not move without being pushed by a leader. They are willing to carry out a heavy load provided the leader pushes all way. You push they do the work, you stop pushing they also stop doing the work. Keep pushing them.

The visual People: these are helped through visuals. Visuals solve problems by seeing the solution in the form of pictures in mind. Since their analytical thought processes are visual, such people respond well to slides or charts and diagrams.

The Audio People: the structure of their thought patterns around the mode of sound. These people are like Nicodemus

The kinesthetic People: thought patterns of kinesthetic centre largely around the mode of touch. They relate well to back patting, embracing, or solid hand shakes. These always focus on the results of the present programmes or projects.

KNOW THE TEMPERAMENT OF OTHERS

We must always recognize that most people have bad days. Different situations may cause a temporary change in the emotions of others, for example:

Home problems,

School problems,

Work problems,

Personal problems.

The leader should know how to relate to these situations, recognizing that by modeling he or she can help group members learn to be patient long suffering and accepting.

QUALITIES DESIRED BY CHRISTIAN LEADERS.

Of scores of leadership attributes appreciated and desired by most people, four almost always surface as the favoured qualities and are usually given in the following order:

Understanding,

Spirituality,

Knowledgeability

Personality and emotional maturity.

Understanding: “Wisdom is the principal thing; therefore get wisdom; and with all thy getting get understanding”. (Proverbs 4:7) Without understanding it is impossible to help , guide, or instruct someone who is in need. A leader must understand the factors involved in order to relate well in relationship. An understanding leader is much sought out and is rewarded with an attitude of respect, devotion, love and almost hero worship.

Spirituality: “For to be carnally minded is death; but to be spiritually minded is life and peace.” (Romans 8:6) With a combination of the two , spirituality and understanding, a most powerful force is placed in motion for the uplifting, healing , reconciliation, and spiritual well-being o f both the one knowing salvation and the one uncommitted.

One does not become a spirituality leader by birth, or by social rank, or by education. Spirituality comes by the power of the Holy Spirit. It comes through prayer, tears and confession of sin. It requires a great heart searching and sacrifice. A spiritual leader approaches all of his problems in a spirit of love and Christ-likeness.

Knowledgeability:For wisdom is a defence , and money is a defence: but the Excellency of knowledge is that wisdom giveth life to them that have it”(Ecclesiastes 7:12.)

A leader should know where he/she is going, and to achieve objectives planned. Experience and Knowledgeability come from years of careful and prayerful study and relationships. These are also result in personality and emotional maturity. A leader should always develop a maturity in leadership styles.

OTHER LEADERSHIP QUALITIES:

Visionary: According to W R Beach(2003) “A vision separates the men who do from those who do not” Proverbs 29:18 also says that “No vision people perish”. Therefore leaders must have a vision.

Of course there are problems! Of course there are obstacles! But these do not turn men of hallowed vision from their purpose. In God’s strength they move forward to achievement in spite of impediments that would discourage the less intrepid soul.

Vision is divine discontent. It is a holy thing God plants deep in the heart of man that keeps him from becoming satisfied with achievements of the past. He is impelled ever to move forward in heaven’s strength attempting and accomplishing greater things for God. Vision never allows a man to stop short of his projected goal.

Efficiency An efficient leader puts life and earnestness in the discharge of duty. -Cursed is the man who does God’s work deceitfully (Jeremiah, 48:10) -Therefore a leader must show genuineness in the work. -A leader should “non pretender” in the Lord’s work.

FOUR BASIC LEVELS THAT MAKE EFFICIENCE A SUCCESS.

Planning: Any leader who fails to plan for the work, is planning to fail a job. You cannot reap where you did not sow, neither can you draw water from an empty well.

John 8:14, Jesus says that: “I know where I have come from and I know where I am going”. As a leader you should not only know where you have come from but know where you are before you can know where you are going.

Questions to be asked when doing the planning: what do you want to do? Why do you want to do it? Which one do you want to give first priority? How do you do it? Who will do it and why will he/she do it? When will it be done and why? What results are you going to expect if it is done that way? Are you satisfied with the planning?

Organization: Organization is very important where planning is involved. There are good planners who do not make things happen because there is no proper organization. On top of that as leader you should have an effective organization; uncooperative pair of heads spells disaster.

Leading:

Leadership requires making things happen, not going round and round without any achievement.

Get the right heads in the right places to do the required jobs. Getting the right people in key positions is of utmost importance in operating an effective organization. Give people responsibilities according to their talents and not what they have. The person’s background, training, experience, personality, public relations, speaking ability, and adaptability are all determining factors. Each person may fail to be an AY leader and so on.

In giving responsibilities, every one should know what is expected of him/her. Some leaders leave these details to chance, and the results are either complete failure or only partial success.

Give the information required. Offer data and provide pertinent information; express opinions; give suggestions or ideas. The leader must realize that information means understanding and thus better cooperation. He or she will give pertinent information to the group in order to facilitate better understanding and cooperation.

Clarify and elaborate. Interpret ideas or suggestions; clear up confusion; indicate alternatives and points of dispute before the group; supply examples. Many cases of conflicts are due to lack of understanding and can be reduced. The leader must help clarify issues, allow others to explain themselves and if possible, and if possible, find alternatives for problems affecting the group.

The leader should know the functions of organization. These functions of maintenance are a guide to help the leader in the task of helping others discover their potential, and as a united body achieve the goals of the group.

Organize. An important aspect of leadership is to organise. A leader has to decide what tasks are to be accomplished, and define the relationships of authority and responsibility among the persons who will work toward the goals. Planning and organising are interdependent activities.

Give direction. The leader must motive, instruct and supervise. Motivation is not something outside the person. It is the ability of the leader to help the person, or group, realize what can be done, what is possible, and create the will to do it. It motivating, the leader must help the person or the group, realizes potential. Motivation only is not enough, the leader must also provide instruction; supervise the completion of the task, helping the subject to make corrections as progress is achieved.

Coordinate. The leader considers coordination a vital part of the successful operation of the organization. This function permits all to work in harmony. It means leaving the channels of communication open.

The leader prevents and impedes possible conflicts so there may be cooperation among those who make up the organization.

EVALUATION:

Luke 6:31 states that “Treat men exactly as you would like them to treat you”

There should be time to look back at your work. It is dangerous to go on and on without evaluating your work.

Take every opportunity to help your fellow workers where they do well. As you do this remember, men fight well in their own armor. A David usually finds it difficult or impossible to fight in Saul’s armor.

Do not be afraid to admit that, you are sometimes wrong. We all make mistakes in all kinds of ways. (James 3:2). Pastor Daniel Chunga (2010) says that: “be sure you are right, then go ahead”; I (Mwanza) have added to Chunga’s words by saying: when you know that you are wrong, just be sure to quit/admit and consult from others.

Do not over organize to confuse the workers. The machinery should be simple, and the divine Ghost power be abundant. “Let all things be done decently and in order” (1 Corinthians 14: 40).

Let others have the credit, “Let us have real warm affection for one another as between brothers and a willingness to let the other man have the credit.’’

Give men a second chance. When a worker fails, it is like wise the failure of his leader. Do not ask others to do what you are able but unwilling to do yourself. When it comes to a sacrificial giving, the true leader will lead. He will set the pace. A true leader leads the “Bergen” way _ he says “let’s go!” and never have “you gone!”Even in giving men a second chance he practices the golden rule .Do to others as you would like them to do to you.

Support your men .Have a heart that never hardens, a temper that never tries, a touch that never hurts.

THE LEADER AS A CHAIR PERSON

Proverbs 8:20: statesLead people in the way of righteousness, in the midst of the paths of judgment“. Therefore a leader should always stick to the truth and regulations or rather God’s rules. Sincerity should be shown by the successful leader. A leader must chair any meeting in an orderly and respected manner. The following are some tips for chairing a meeting:

Rules to be followed in bringing order: Any meeting that is conducted requires order and must operate on accepted rules of procedure. Every leader should have some knowledge of the customs and rules of parliamentary order. In most cases only the most elementary rules are required.

Presiding officer

Whoever is to preside at a meeting is usually called the chairman or the chair person. In order to avoid development of personality conflicts, the title of the presiding officer is not used, e.g., “Mr. President (Mwanza)”

The term chairman is still widely used and should be considered in the generic sense that is, meaning both men and women. In some part of the world, the term Chairperson is more appropriate. It is also common to use the term “Chair” when referring to the person who leads the meeting.

Calling the Meeting to Order:

The Chairperson should call for the attention of the members and say, “the meeting will please come to order,” or “the time has come for our meeting to begin,” and introduce the first item on the Agenda. In the case of a religious meeting the following should be arranged in the way they have been put:

Opening song should come first.

Then followed by prayer/devotion.

Roll Call: “The secretary will call the roll”. This is done in order to establish quorum for the meeting. A quorum is the number or proportion of the organization membership that is required to do a business. Any organization may fix its own quorum as less or more. A quorum is not necessarily the majority of members, but the number of members that the organization determines as adequate for business transactions to be legal. Any action taken by the executive committee or in a meeting when there is no quorum is invalid. To avoid this problem, the Chairperson should always determine that a quorum is present before any business is conducted.

Approval of Minutes: The Secretary’s report is called for and the Secretary will present the minutes from the last meeting. After the minutes have been read, the Chairperson asks, “Are there any corrections to these minutes?” If any member raises a question, it is decided by the agreement or the dissent of all, or by a majority present, and correction is made or not made accordingly. If there is no correction offered, then the Chairperson concludes the matter by saying, “The minutes will stand as read.” In some places, a motion is called for to accept or approve the Secretary’s report. See how to write good minutes of the meeting on page 33.

Introduction of business or opening remarks: The business to be transacted at the meeting comes next. It is the duty of the presiding officer to introduce the business. For example, “We shall now take up the business of the meeting.” Those who did not finish their business they report and those committees that were given responsibilities and have done them they report through their secretaries.

Privilege of speaking is through getting the floor: As items on the agenda are discussed any member or person in the meeting has the right to speak, and should address the chair and be recognized .This parliamentary procedure prevents the confusion that results when several people try to speak at the same time. In a group of any size the member desiring to speak should rise and address the chair saying, for example, “Mr. Chairman.” He or she must then wait to be recognized, that is, until the Chairperson speaks his or her name or points at him or her. (In the youth group people are usually recognized by the first names). The one addressing the Chair is then free to speak, but it must be pertinent; that is, it should pertain to the ‘matter under discussion.’

Maintaining Order: If any other person should attempt to talk while the person recognized by the Chair is speaking, it is the duty of the Chairperson to repress the disorder by saying, “Sir Richard has the floor” If there should be considerable confusion, say, “Order please” or “please come to order,” or “please recognize the Chair If necessary, rap sharply to call the meeting to order. If the Chairperson fails to uphold this right of the one having the floor, then that person may address the Chair and say, for, “Mr. Chairman, do I have the floor?” (This should not be necessary if order is maintained by following the rules.)

When the person finishes speaking and sits down, another may obtain the floor by a similar procedure. In a small meeting people wishing to speak may rise or remain seated.

RECAPITULATION/SUMMARISATION

It always important to make a recap or summery of what has been discussed in the many business. After the discussions have been done, now a Chairperson (leader) should reflect the discussed issues by going or rather making a summery very quickly by mentioning out the important issues.

CLOSING REMARKS

When closing up the meeting it is very vital before a closing prayer a leader should say ‘thank’ to the house/people for their presence, and then call for closing prayer.

By Mr. J L Banda DEFINiTION OF MINUTES

There are several statements that may be used to define minutes some of which are:

Minutes are summary 0f decisions of a meeting.

Minutes are an agreed written record of business of a meeting.

Minutes are a report of what transpired during a meeting

IMPORTANCE OF MINUTES

Minutes may be used as a point of reference.

May be used as a source of precedence.

Orally communicated decisions have a tendency of being ‘misremembered’ when the occasion suits.

Democratically made decisions cannot be ‘overlooked’ or unilaterally abrogated by either the chairperson or a caucus.

Minutes also render each participant at the meeting accountable for his or her utterances

TYPES OF MINUTES

Verbatim minutes

Narrative minutes

Resolution minutes

Action minutes

Verbatim minutes record everything said word for word e.g. in court.

Narrative minutes have a summary of the main points which precede the reaching of a decision.

Resolution minutes publish resolutions reached while concealing strong disagreements or conflicts that transpired while members were deliberating on the issue.

Action minutes make it clear who undertakes or has been asked to do what.

FORMAT

Name of the organisation.

Include the statement:

MINUTES OF THE MEETING HELD ON ………………………………….

State date and place.

List names of all present starting with the chairperson and ending with the recorder.

List names of those absent with apology and those without apology

FORMAT CONT’D

There are a number of different ways in which minutes are set out on paper.

In some cases, minutes are numbered and given headings which reproduce exactly the sequence and numbering of the items as they appear on the agenda.

The system adopted frequently is that which gives an item on the agenda a number such as 1.0 or 2.0 or 3.0 followed by its title or heading.

Points that are minuted under such headings are then referenced 1.1, 1.2 1.3 etc.

The advantage of such a system is that it makes it easy to refer to specific items or paragraphs.

THE LANGUAGE

Minutes being a report of what transpired in a meeting, reported speech assume a prominent role.

There are certain rules that must be adhered to.

Rule one: changing personal pronouns e.g. ‘I, we, you’ become ‘he, she, they’ ‘I am ..’ becomes ‘He said he was…’

Was delayed…’ becomes ‘had been delayed….’

Rule two: the tenses of verbs. e.g. I shall write he/she would write

I shall be writing he/she would be writing.

I shall have written he/she would have written.

Rule three: The distance effect.

When people use direct speech, the event is happening ‘here and now’.

When the meeting is reported at a later date, the discussion is in the past and took place ‘there and then’.

For this reason, a number of words and expressions need to be adjusted.

Today …………………… that day.

Now ………………………then

Here ………………………there

This ………………………..that

These ………………………those

Tomorrow … the next/following day

Yesterday ……………. The previous day

Rule four: conveying the tone of the direct speech.

If the minutes recorder is not careful, the reporting may easily slip into a dull ‘he said’, ‘she said’ ‘he said’.

It is important to vary the words that introduce the reported speech: urged that, asked whether, insisted that, suggested that, etc.

CONCLUSION It is hoped that some of these ideas will help us take minutes easily and confidently.

Part two

Tips to Effective Preaching by mwanza matthews

I have decided to include this article (by Carl Z; 1993) in this book in order to educate my fellow youths who may wish to preach a wonderful sermon on the pulpit effectively. My text will be from Acts 2 where Peter preached on the day of Pentecost, and from Acts 3 where the lame man was healed while they were on their way to the temple. In both of these instances Peter ministered in such a way that thousands were saved. I think we can learn a lot from Peter (Acts 2:14-38 & 3:12-26). Effective preachers must study. As you look at these two messages from Peter, you will see that he had studied the word. In both instances he was suddenly given the opportunity to preach, and he was “instant in season and out of season” (2 Timothy 4:2). There is no shortcut to “studying to show yourself approved, a workman that needs not be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth” (2 Timothy 2:15).

There is nothing more powerful than the Word of God. Peter, in his sermon on the day of Pentecost, quoted large and obscure passages of scripture. He didn’t pull out a scroll and start looking things up, he knew them by heart. We have the promise that His word will not return to Him void (Isaiah 55:10-11). It is sharper than any two edged sword (Hebrews 4:12). The word will do more in the hearts of people than I ever can. When I was first saved I made up my mind that I wanted to give people God’s answer to the problems of life and not only what I thought. My opinion is not worth much, but what God has to say is of eternal value. (Carl Z)

Nothing has helped me in my preaching and teaching more than the memorization of scripture. Even if people have a hard time taking it all in, it will go on to work in their lives for years to come. Jesus said “the Holy Spirit would bring all things to your remembrance whatsoever he has said unto us” (John 14:26). His promise is that He will bring the appropriate scripture to us when it is needed the most. It was said of Jesus that when He was in a house in Capernaum, and there was so many people crowding into the house that there was no longer any room, that “He preached the word unto them” (Mark 2:2). It’s the word that makes our ministry truly effective as it did Jesus’. Effective preachers must be dependent upon the Lord or rather the Bible. Jesus said, “apart from me you can do nothing.” (John 15:5) If we’re going to be effective preachers and teachers of the word we’re going to have to be in complete dependence upon Him. Peter learned this the hard way. Remember he said to Jesus that, “though all men shall be offended because of thee, yet will I never be offended?.” And again, “though I should die with thee, yet will I not deny thee?” (Matthew 26:33 & 35). I think Peter meant his commitment but you see he was depending on himself and not Jesus. He had a very hard lesson to learn. When he stood on the day of Pentecost I believe he was no longer leaning on his own strength but completely on God.

I honestly feel sorry for those who have so many strong natural abilities. It’s hard for them not to depend upon those natural strengths instead of depending completely upon Jesus. I know that any thing of worth coming from my life is totally and completely Him. I believe God has gifted me with an ability to handle His word, but I also know without a doubt it’s all Him and that I can never get up to minister without His divine aid. Every time I cry out to Him, letting Him know that unless He does it through me, it is bound for disaster. Let’s abandon any self confidence and self dependency and place it all on the Holy Spirit to do His work through us. It’s only what He does through us that will have any true and lasting effectiveness.

Effective preachers must have an experience with the Cross. When the lame man was healed and everyone began to look to Peter and John as if they were someone great, Peter was quick to turn their attention away from them and direct it all to Jesus. He said, “why do you gaze at us, as if by our own power or piety we had made him walk?”(Acts 3:12) Peter was quick to let them know it wasn’t them but Jesus. He even took it a step further to say it wasn’t even his faith but the faith that came from Jesus (Acts 3:16).

Today we might say it is Jesus coupled with our great faith and little do we realize we wouldn’t have the faith we have if He hadn’t given it to us (Romans 12:3). If we haven’t had a true experience with the cross, where we give all the glory to Jesus, our effectiveness in ministering the word will be limited at best. There will be times inevitably that people will look to us and we must take great care to continually point them to Jesus. God will share His glory with no one.

Effective preachers need support. No matter how great we think we are and how great the call of God is on our life, we can’t do it alone. It was said of Peter, “taking his stand with the eleven” (Acts 2:14). They stood behind him in full support of him, his ministry, and all he was saying. If we’re going to be effective, it’s imperative that we have people who are behind us in full support, no matter what.

It’s interesting to me that just days before this Peter had denied the Lord. In the natural, they probably wouldn’t have chosen Peter. To be honest, I wouldn’t have chosen me, but God did. They knew, in spite of the failure Peter had experienced, he was the one Jesus had called and chosen, so they stood behind him in full support. Let that be a lesson for us. Let’s stand behind the man God has called. He may not be perfect, and he may go through some struggles now and then, but he’s still the one God has called and chosen.

Jesus said, “if you have not been faithful in that which is another man’s, who will give you that which is your own” (Luke 16:12). Everyone needs a good “amen” corner! Others will notice those who are supportive of you and it will cause their confidence in you to be increased. If the truth be known, it encourages me when I know I have strong men and women standing behind me. When they are there and their support is made evident, it encourages me making me stronger, more confident and bolder than ever. Let’s get behind the man of God and make our support evident. As for those of us who are called, let’s realize we can’t do what God has called us to do unless there are faithful people who will get behind us.

Effective preachers must use voice inflection. It was said of Peter after he stood that he “raised his voice” (Acts 2:14). It doesn’t mean that he was screaming and yelling. No one likes it when people are screaming at them. A little child once said, “why is he so mad at us” referring to the preacher. On the other hand, people are bored to tears when a person is ministering in a completely monotone voice. It’s hard to keep their attention and could easily put them to sleep!

We want people to get as much out of what God has given to us for them as possible. The point is when we are trying to make an emphasis there should be a change in our voice to display the point that we’re trying to make. God will help you with this as you go on in your ministry. Often it will develop as we are impressed with the importance of what we are attempting to get across. The best thing I (Mwanza Matthews)can say to you is, be yourself. Don’t try to be someone you are not. Effective preachers must be informative. Peter said, “let this be know to you” (Acts 2:14). We always want to give people fresh insight and new understanding. This, like the first point we brought out, is going to take diligent study. It doesn’t come easy; there’s no shortcut to hard work. It also has to do with our imparting the mind of God to the people which will require us “having been with Jesus” (Acts 4:13), spending much time “seated at His feet” (Luke 10:39). We need to be able to give them, “thus says the Lord.” Lets dig into the word and seek the face of the Lord so we too can say, “let this be known to you.”

Effective preachers must be exhortative. “And give heed to my words.” We must be challenging. It does little good to give people information if we’re not going to move them to put it into action and implement it into their life. “We ought to give the more earnest heed to the things which we have heard, lest at any time we should let them slip” (Hebrews 2:1). If they don’t give heed to the word preached they could easily let the truth of God’s word slip away from them. “Faith without works is dead” (James 2:17). “For unto us was the gospel preached as well as unto them, but the word preached did not profit them, not being mixed with faith, in them that heard it” (Hebrews 4:2). People will not profit from our ministry unless we some how get them to put the Word into practice. It won’t be easy and often they won’t like it, but we must challenge them to “give heed to our words.” The bible says, we are to “provoke one another to love and good works” (Hebrews 10:24). It was Simeon of Cyrene who was pressed into service to bear Jesus’ cross (Mark 15:21), and very likely it was the same Simeon in Acts 13:1 who became one of the leaders in that great church. We never know what might become of those we challenge. Let’s press our people into the service of the Master!

Effective preachers must get to the point. Peter didn’t beat around the bush. He got right to the point. After giving careful explanation as to what had taken place on the day of Pentecost he quickly told them, “you nailed to the cross… and put Him to death” (Acts 2:23). After the healing of the lame man, he was quick to tell them, “you disowned the Holy and Righteous one… and put to death the prince of life” (Acts 3:14-15). Notice he said you not someone in general. We must stop playing games with people and set the truth forth plainly. If God has called you to preach the Word don’t quit! Remember, the “gifts and callings of God are without repentance” (Romans 11:29). God’s Word will not return void. He will prosper your work and ministry in due season.

BLANK PAGE SEE THE

REFERENCES

matthews.mwanza@yahoo.co.uk 2015

A SELF PRODUCTION

REFERENCES

Banda J.L, (2015) Taking Minutes Of A Meeting, Chililabombwe: softcopy (nil).

Beach W.R, (2003) A Success To Management, New York City: Oxford University.

Carl Z, (1993) Sermons And Preachers, London: DC publishers.

Lippit and White,(1968), Manageability among youths, Lagos: Nigerian Publishers.

Pastor Chunge Daniel, (2010), Softcopy(nil)

Steward Tubbs, (1989) Qualifications In Life, Brooklyn: Brooklyn University.

Thomas Nelson, (1980) King James Version KJV Bible, Wisconsin: National Publishing Company.

http://www.mindtools.com/page/article/newLDR-41.htm.

http://www.kent.ac.uk/careers/sk/leadership/htm

ALBINISM IN AFRICA

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‘My people are destroyed for lack of knowledge because they have rejected knowledge.’ 1

1. Introduction

This statement could be true for persons with albinism (PWA), who suffer various forms of discrimination due to lack of knowledge and understanding on the part of the wider community. Historically, African populations were not aware of the cause of albinism, as health science on the continent was not sufficiently developed to provide the necessary biomedical information.

Additionally, African cultures, beliefs and superstitions reinforced discrimination against people with albinism leading to, amongst other things, the violation of their rights to life, health, education and work. For instance, midwifes or nurses might abandon a black woman giving birth to a white‐skinned child (or an ‘albino’, as a person with albinism is commonly referred to; this term is now regarded as pejorative, and instead we generally refer to ‘people with albinism’).

The phenomenon of albinism raises a number of questions: to what extent does contemporary African society understand the cause of albinism? How does the condition affect the human rights of the people who have it, and indeed, their perceived humanity? What are the causes of albinism? And what are the prejudices associated with it?

This paper will respond to these questions from the social, medical and legal perspectives, and will hopefully help to inform people about albinism. This is a vital step towards promoting and protecting the rights of people with the condition.

It will also attempt to suggest some recommendations to reduce prejudice and discrimination against such individuals by mentioning the duties and responsibilities of families, African governments, regional organisations and NGOs.

1Hosea4:6

The paper will first examine the cause of albinism through biomedical information. Secondly, it will consider the prevalence of albinism, and analyse the human rights situation related to the condition. It will also discuss the understanding of albinism through African cultures, beliefs and superstitions and, finally, it will offer some recommendations.

2. The Cause of Albinism

The science of genetics provides exact information on albinism: ‘Albinism consists of a group of genetic disorders of the melanin pigmenting system which occurs throughout the animal kingdom from insects, fish and birds right up to human beings’. 2 In other words, albinism does not exist only in human beings, but in all animals. (Indeed, albinism can also occur in plants due to a lack of chlorophyll.) A very important part of this definition is that albinism exists in all parts of the world, and in all life forms. It certainly does not exist only in Africa; all continents have a population of people with albinism.

Albinism is characterized by an absence of, or decrease in, melanin, which in the human varieties of albinism takes two forms: (i) occulocutaneous albinism and (ii) ocular albinism. The first form (which is by far the commoner) manifests as a lack of pigmentation in the skin, hair and eyes. In ocular albinism the loss of melanin is limited to the eyes, while skin pigmentation is normal. As is commonly known, pigmentation naturally differs between human beings, rendering some people darker‐skinned, and others fairer, depending on their melanin levels. Thus, low levels of melanin cause an absence of pigmentation and may result in a child being born with albinism.

A similar explanation of albinism states: “The human body’s production of melanin is governed by many factors, including pigmentation genes, hormones and ultra‐violet radiation (UVR). When the action of genes and hormones is not in balance an individual’s melanin production can be completely or partly disrupted, causing the person to have little or no pigment in his or her skin, hair or eyes; in other words to become an albino”. 3

Generally, the lack of pigmentation affects the skin, hair and eyes. Hair will look reddish or yellow, and the skin will lack colour, tending to white. The skin burns easily on exposure to the sun, wi th a high risk of skin cancer.

Moreover, the nature of albinism means that all those with the condition have visual problems. There is hypopigmentation of the iris choroid and retina, as well as mal‐ development of the fovea (a part of the retina that mediates central vision). The typical signs of visual problems are photophobia (an abnormal, often painful, sensitivity to sunlight leading to its avoidance), nystagmus (involuntary rhythmical oscillations of the eyeballs, usually in a horizontal plane), squint, and decreased visual acuity.4

2 Ashley H Robins Biological Perspectives on Human Pigmentation (1991) P 139
3 Nina G Jablonski Skin A Natural History (2006) P 69.
4 Ashley H Robins (Note ii) P 139
2

For these reasons, people with albinism often struggle with their eyesight. The prescription of correct spectacles and tinted glasses may help to reduce photophobia and improve vision, although they cannot address the underlying causes. The lenses are usually prescribed for a person from six years of age and must be renewed every two years in order to improve the vision. Unfortunately, even the cheaper lenses cost between 350 and 600 Euros (up to R8 000), an amount equivalent to the monthly salary of middle or senior professional in some parts of Africa. Consequently, most families simply cannot afford to buy the lenses, and the child concerned will struggle to improve his or her education. This is an important factor behind the high school drop‐out rate of children who have the condition.

In addition, people with albinism must take strict precautions against sun exposure whenever possible. The sun should be avoided particularly between the hours of 10:00 and 15:00 in summer in South Africa, and 08:00 to 16:00 in tropical countries in East, West, Central and Southern Africa. Apart from protective clothing and the use of physical barrier creams, regular inspection of the skin (at least yearly) is needed in order to detect incipient malignant change.

The psychosocial aspects of the condition deserve special attention. Children with albinism and their parents require specific counselling about the problem of albinism and the relevant management strategies.5 In some parts of Africa the development of health science is beginning to explain to families with albinism what the causes and medical consequences of albinism are, but teaching the wider community about albinism remains a challenge.

3. The Prevalence of Albinism

The available data on albinism in Africa was collated some years ago, and there has been little additional research recently. It is thus possible that the prevalence figures may have changed due, for example, to overall population growth.
The estimated frequency of occulocutaneous albinism varies among different ethnic groups and in different geographical areas. For example, among European and North American Caucasians the frequency usually lies between 1 in 10 000 and 1 in 20 000, while among African Americans it is about 1 in 10 000.6
Albinism appears to be more common in Africa, with the highest prevalence being about 1 in 2 000 in Tanzania. 7 The reason for the high prevalence in Tanzania is not clearly understood. There is a rate of 1:5 000 in Nigeria and 1:3 900 in South Africa. In South Africa consanguinity appears to be a significant factor, for example being very high (42%) among the parents of Tswana albinos (the Tswana social system encourages marriage between cousins). The Southern Sotho also have a very high prevalence, as much as 1:2 000, while among the Zulu and Xhosa it is 1:4 500.

5 Ashley H Robins (Note ii) P148
6 Ashley H Robins (Note 1) P139
7 http://www.underthesamesun.org prevalence of albinism in Tanzania, accessed on 24 May 2013
3

In African cultures where marriage between cousins is encouraged the gene of albinism may spread in the family. One advantage of this is that the family will understand the cause of albinism and take greater care of the person affected. Conversely, in cultures with less prevalence of albinism, such people will likely suffer more prejudice and discrimination in the community.
4. Human Rights Perspectives

People with albinism are human beings and are entitled to enjoy the same human rights as everyone else: for our purposes, the rights to life, health, education, work, and equal opportunities are especially important. These human rights are set out in many international covenants which are in force in many African countries, such as the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR),8 the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR),9 the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC),10 and the African Charter. In addition, they qualify as disabled persons and are consequently entitled to enjoy the specific rights and considerations mentioned in the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD).11 Article 10 of this convention reads: ‘States Parties reaffirm that every human being has the inherent right to life and shall take all necessary measures to ensure its effective enjoyment by persons with disabilities on an equal basis with others.’

4.1. The right to life

This right is sacrosanct, and the supreme right according to Article 6 of the ICCPR; it is also mentioned in many African constitutions. In a religious context, every human being is considered sacred. But the right to life means more than just not being murdered; it includes the right to a decent life, the right to have some freedom in relation to the manner in which one lives one’s life, the right to be treated equally in relation to those life choices, and so on.

However, people with albinism do not enjoy the right to life in some parts of Africa. For instance, in East Africa, specifically in Tanzania and neighbouring countries, they are not free to live in rural areas because of regular attacks on them (often for their body parts) and because of the trafficking of children with albinism.12 This situation constitutes a violation of the right to life of PWA mentioned in the above conventions and Constitutions; and it clearly offends against article 10 of the UNCRPD, set out above.

4.2. The right to health

The traditional medical definition of ‘disability’ does not recognize albinism as a disability. However, with the introduction of the International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, which mentions visual impairment, it is clear that the condition of albinism falls in
8 GA Res 2200 A (XX) 16 December 1966, entered into force in 1976
9 GA Res 2200 A (XX) 16 December 1966, entered into force in 1976
10 GA Res 44/25 of 20 November 1989, entered into force 2 September 1990
11 A/Res/61/106/ UN General Assembly resolution adopted on 24 January 2007
12 http://www.underthesamesun.org, trafficking of children with albinism, accessed on 24 May 2013
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this category. Therefore, people with albinism should enjoy the same treatment as other disabled persons. However, policy‐makers in different countries have adopted an inconsistent approach to this question: in some, they are regarded as disabled, but not in others.

The definition of disability is a contentious one. As Asch observes, terms such as “health, normality, impairment and disability are highly contested. Their meanings are not clear, objective, and universal across time and space, and are contentious even for contemporaries in the same culture, profession and field”.13

In addition, the early medical definitions of disability emphasised the physical, psychological and/or neurological nature of the disabled body. “Disability was equated with deficiency, in the sense that a physical, psychological and or neurological attribute was identified as lacking from an agreed‐upon image of the ideal subject.”14
Further, disability policy is often designed and controlled by non‐disabled functionaries at international and national level. Most importantly, the paradigm of disability policy has shifted from the medical welfare model towards the concept of independent living. According to this philosophy, disabled persons are the best experts about their own concerns and are citizens with rights and responsibilities. 15 The modern concept of disability has allowed people with albinism to claim recognition and to assert their right to health regarding the barriers, prejudices and discrimination they face.

The right to health is mentioned in Article 12 of ICESCR. If this right were to be extended fully for people with albinism, they would be entitled to receive free sunscreen and free spectacles from the government as prevention against skin cancer. Article 2 of UNCRPD mentions the use of large print, human reader, and augmentative and alternative modes of communication for people with disabilities. Some of these mechanisms are applicable to visually‐impaired people with albinism.

From this perspective, people with albinism are disabled persons. However, this recognition is not universal; in some countries where disabled persons receive a disability grant, such as in South Africa, people with the condition still struggle to get the grant due to a lack of recognition of their condition as a disability. In South Africa, the leading organization that represents disabled persons, the Disability Alliance of South Africa (DASA), does not mention albinism; neither does Disabled People South Africa (DPSA). 16 This absence of recognition of albinism as a disability which is different from blindness has an impact at policy level, in terms of which it is not clear which government department to approach in order to discuss the issue of person with albinism.

13 Luke clement and Janet Read Disabled People and the right to life: The protection and violation of disabled people’s most basic human rights (2008) P 13

14 Brian Watermeyer, Leslie Swartz Disability and Social Change, a South African Agenda (2006) P149
15 Theressa Degener Human Rights and Disabled Persons, Essays and Relevant Human Rights Instruments (1995) 10
16 http://www.dpsa.org/partneships disabled person’s organization of South Africa, accessed on 24 May 2013
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4.3 The rights to education and work

Article 24 of the UNCRPD mentions the right to education of persons with disabilities, while Article 11 of the UNCRC recognizes the right to education of the disabled child.

The UNCRPD promotes the concept of mainstreaming to reduce prejudice and extend the understanding of disabilities. Mainstreaming is a concept that can be reduced to a simple notion that ‘interaction between individuals with or without disabilities is helpful in the long run, since we are all part of one society, and we want the student with a disability to feel a part of, and ultimately participate in, the society.’17 In some countries people with albinism study at mainstream institutions, where they should be provided with large print and assistive devices. In South Africa, there is a need for a deeper understanding of the disability aspects of albinism in order to accommodate these students better. At present, in South Africa most children with albinism study in special schools or schools for the blind. They should have specific devices, different from those used by blind learners, such as computers with ‘zoomtext’ and a Merlin Large Printer.

People with albinism have the right to work and the right to equal opportunities. However, these rights are sometimes in conflict with African cultures (see below), which can result in them finding it very difficult to secure employment. In countries which have affirmative‐ action employment policies for disabled people, such as South Africa, people with albinism may benefit, provided that they are aware of these policies and are recognised as disabled.

5. Understanding of Albinism in African Cultures and Beliefs

African cultures have developed many beliefs to understand the condition of albinism. ‘Culture is a system of beliefs and practices in terms of which a group of human beings understand, regulate and structure their individuals and collective lives. It is a way of both understanding and organizing human life’.18 In other words, each part of Africa has its culture and beliefs. However, in general all cultures have some similarities and beliefs regarding people with albinism.
In central Africa for instance, such people were regarded as mysterious persons with specific powers and intelligence, and as bringers of good luck in the family.19 In Southern Africa several myths exist in relation to the powers and the fate of people with albinism: For example, that they have special spiritual powers and will not die naturally, but just disappear when the time comes; that albinism results from a black woman sleeping with a white man; and that having intercourse with a woman with albinism cures HIV/AIDS (with the result that many such women are at high risk of rape). Another belief is that if a pregnant women looks

17 Robert A Weisgerber Quality of Life for Persons with Disabilities (1991) P 71
18 Bhikhu Parekh Rethinking Multiculturalism, Cultural Diversity and Political Theory 2ed (2006) P 143
19 Ashley H Robins (Note 1) P180‐81
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at a person with albinism, she will give birth to a child with the condition unless she spits on her stomach.20
In evaluating the impact of the birth of a child with albinism on black South African mothers, the mothers were initially depressed and uncomfortable at being in close contact with their infants, and reluctant to breastfeed them.21

In West Africa, there is a belief that people with albinism put their countries under divine protection. In East Africa, in contrast, albinism is regarded as a punishment to the family, and children with the condition were at one time perceived as curiosities and kept in the households of kings and great chiefs.22 In all parts of Africa, people with albinism have been subject to labelling with terms such as ‘monkey’ or ‘ghost’.

From this perspective, the respect and dignity of people with albinism will depend upon where in Africa they live. In some parts of the continent, they are treated as human beings with equal rights, while in other parts, such as East Africa, they are treated as ‘sub‐human’. For instance, employers avoid hiring a person with albinism due to fears that their customers and staff will ‘catch the condition or that food will be contaminated’.23 As a result, despite having qualifications, they often will not get a job and therefore families do not bother to educate or take care of children with the condition.

Moreover, African culture places the responsibility for the albinism gene on women, and not the man, meaning that when a child is born with the condition, the woman carries the burden. As we shall see, apart from being unfair to the mother, this belief is also scientifically inaccurate.
5.1 The responsibility of parents

The genetic definition of albinism demonstrates that both parents are responsible for passing on the condition. The two types of albinism are transmitted by Mendelian recessive inheritance. This means that a person with albinism must have received it from both parents. If the clinically normal parents of a person with albinism are heterozygous carriers of the albinism gene then, according to Mendelian genetics, the pairing of two such heterozygote carriers will result in a 1 in 4 probability that their offspring will have the condition. If both parents have albinism then all of their offspring will have it.24

Accordingly, to give birth to a child with albinism both parents must carry the gene of albinism. If only one parent carries the gene they cannot give birth to child with the condition, but may well transmit the gene of albinism. The next generation will be ignorant of being carriers of the gene of albinism, but if one of them should procreate with another carrier of gene, they might give birth to a child with albinism. And if both parents actually have albinism, then all their offspring will also have it.
20 http://www.hst.org.za Southern African beliefs on albinism, accessed on 22 May 2013
21 Ashley H Robins (Note 1) P 180‐81
22 Ashley H Robins (Note 1) P 180‐81
23 http://www.underthesamesun.org beliefs on albinism, accessed on 24 May 2013
24 Ashely H Robins (Note 1) P 141
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Although both parents are responsible for passing on the gene, in African culture, children with albinism experience different treatment according to whether the family regime is matrilineal or patrilineal.

5.2. Matrilineal family

Matrilineal family comes from matri meaning maternal and lineal meaning lineage. Lineage deals with your kinship grouping or family tree. In some African societies inheritance is also matrilineal, which implies that upon a man’s death his sister’s son will inherit his material goods and position. Here a child has the family name of the father or the name of the family’s mother.25

A child with albinism born into a matrilineal society may receive affection, education and protection. The mother can breastfeed the child and take care of it because the child is part of her ‘social security’, and will contribute to her family. In circumstances where the father has denied the child because of albinism, family on the mother’s side will take care of it; the child will not suffer prejudice or rejection, and the community will respond in the same manner. The mother will praise God to have the child, feed her baby and carry it “Moukanga”, by putting the baby on her back while she works. This attitude of love and care of the mother will be a message to the community which, in turn, will follow the example of the family.

From this perspective, there will be joy, happiness, and respect for the dignity of the child and non‐discrimination towards the family from the community. However, the opposite can occur in a patrilineal family.

5.3. Patrilineal family

According to article 312 of the civil code of French law, which has been taken up in many former French colonies in Africa, there is a presumption which means the father may deny the child, even in court. In such case, the child will not know his or her paternal family, and the maternal family may also reject the baby. Consequently, the child from birth will suffer prejudice and rejection by both families. This attitude leads many mothers to hide the child from the view of the community by keeping the child indoors and not informing the community about having such a child. In this way, some children with albinism are treated as aliens in the family and in the community. The discrimination starts from home and the community follows the negative attitude of the family.

This leads to much prejudice and suffering. For instance, the child will not receive attention for his/her education because of the prejudice that having low‐vision means stupidity. Children born in these conditions will tend to lack self‐esteem. The prevailing attitude will be, “How can you spend money on someone who cannot see? This child cannot watch cattle or work in the plantation. Therefore, the child is useless.” These powerful words will have an impact on the growth and development of the child by limiting its chances of success and self‐ fulfilment.

25 Luke Clement (Note 12) P 250

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In general, African cultures still rely on beliefs and superstitions to make sense of the condition of albinism. But this situation differs from one part of Africa to another. While in some parts the rate of acceptance seems to improve, in other parts the situation is critical, as in East Africa, where discrimination and rejection of people with albinism have escalated in the last decade. Thus, there is an urgent need for African governments, regional organisations, and NGOs to act to end prejudice and discrimination against people with albinism in Africa.

6. A Way Fo rward

The end of prejudice and discrimination must start in the families of people with this condition. But it is equally important that African states commit to ending discrimination as part of their international obligations.

6.1. The role of the family

Families should:
be given accurate information on the condition of albinism from professionals;

join non‐governmental organizations dealing with the issue of albinism, in order to

educate and advocate for the rights of children with the condition;

form a support group to inform each other on the daily challenges of children with albinism;
always be in touch with the schools that the children attend;

have a duty to communicate with the child and take care of it by encouraging, stimulating and supporting the initiative of the child.
6.2. The role of governments

African governments should:
Recognize all forms of disabilities;

Raise awareness of albinism through social media;

Promote the visibility of people with albinism in the public administration, so as to reduce prejudice and discrimination;

Encourage research about albinism;

Provide sunscreen and spectacles to those with the condition, and assistive devices to learners;

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Encourage and assist NGOs run by people with albinism themselves to raise awareness and educate thecommunity at large;

Encourage the private sector to hire people with albinism and to promote equal opportunities.

6.3. The duties of regional organizations

The African Union should:
Take seriously the issues of prejudice, discrimination and killings of people with albinism. The UN Human Right Council (UNHRC) in its 23rd session has adopted a resolution condemning brutal attacks and discrimination against people with the condition. It ‘urges States to take all measures necessary to ensure the effective protection of persons with albinism, and their family members’26 Consequently, the AU has a responsibility to implement this historic resolution to end the flagrant violation of the rights of people with albinism in Africa;

Establish a pan‐African albinism organisation to work with African leaders to better understand the cause of albinism and to end prejudice and discrimination in all African cultures towards people who have the condition;
Promote human rights education at school and universities in order to understand the condition of albinism;

Raise awareness of albinism.

6.4. The duties of non‐governmental organizations

Non‐governmental organizations should:
Inform parents of children with albinism about the condition and form support groups to develop the self‐esteem of such children;
Counsel and advice f amilies;

Work with medical expert, schools, universities and churches to educate the wider community on the condition of albinism;

Assist teachers to understand albinism by putting these children close to the blackboard and giving learners a copy of large‐print materials;
Promote and advocate the rights of people with albinism;

Suggest policy and legislation related to people with albinism;
26 A/HRC/23/L25 on 10 June 2013

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Lobby for better understanding of albinism;
Work closely with other civil societies such as churches to educate the community at large.

6.5. The role of the churches

Churches have played an important role during decolonisation and apartheid in Africa. Today, they still have the moral authority to educate the community at large. Therefore, churches should work to end the beliefs and superstitions mentioned above. By faith, we are all children of God, and also by creation, conservation and by redemption. We are all created by God and all that God made is good (Genesis 1).

Churches should promote the principle of love highlighted in Jesus’ teaching, “Love God and love your neighbour” (Matt 5;11). The churches have a mission of making known the truth and leading people to the truth, and the truth is to consider people with albinism as part of God’s creation and to end all forms of discrimination based on their skin colour.
Moreover, not only churches, but also the testimony of the Holy Qur’an says, “stand out firmly for justice, as witness to Allah…” (Holy Qur’an 4; 135). Justice is a divine mission.

7. Conclusion

An understanding of albinism is crucial if we are to end prejudice and discrimination. This becomes possible through the involvement of all stakeholders – African governments, regional organizations, NGOs, schools, churches and families. The promotion and protection of the rights of people with albinism must be carried out in a way that takes account of African cultures. Finally, as the responsibility is not only with people with albinism themselves to end the prejudice, but with the wider community, no‐one should stand idly by when lives are in danger – Act Now! (Leviticus 19‐16).

Narcisse Kimbassa

Narcisse Kimbassa, born in Congo‐Brazzaville, holds a Master’s degree in International Law from the University of Cape Town. He is currently legal officer at the Western Cape Albinism and Hypo‐pigment Foundation (WCAHF), and a legal intern at the SA Human Rights Commission. Mr Kimbassa conducts workshops, seminars and education on the rights of persons with disabilities and on issues concerning albinism. He can be contacted at nkimbassa@yahoo.fr
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Further Reading

1 ‐ Ashley H Robins: Biological Perspectives on Human Pigmentation, Cambridge Studies in Biological Anthropology, Cambridge University Press, New York, Melbourne, Sydney, 1991

2 ‐ Bhikhu Parekh: Rethinking Multiculturalism Cultural Diversity and Political Theory, second edition, 2006
3 ‐ htpp/www.hst.org.za/news/southern Africa: on the culture of albinism

4 ‐ Nina G Jablonski: Skin: A Natural History, University of California Press, 2006

5 ‐ http://www.underthesamesun.org: beliefs on albinism

6 ‐ Luke Clements and Janet Read: Disabled People and the Right to Life: The Protection and Violation of Disabled People’s Most Basic Human Rights, Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group, 2008

7 ‐ Robert A Weisberger: Quality of Life for Persons with Disabilities, Aspen Publishers, 1991

8 ‐ http://www.dpsa.org/partnerships.php

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